نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 استاد، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار بخش کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

4 استادیار، گروه کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثرات تنش کم‌آبی و انواع کودهای نیتروژن بر عملکرد ماده خشک و اسانس و ترکیبات آن در گیاه نعناع فلفلی، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس در سال 1397 اجرا گردید. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل سه رژیم آبیاری (آبیاری در حد ظرفیت مزرعه و به‌ترتیب بعد از تخلیه 25، 40 و 55 درصد آب قابل‌ استفاده در منطقه‌ ریشه) به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و شش تیمار کودی بر اساس نیتروژن موردنیاز گیاه به‌عنوان عامل فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد بالاترین عملکرد ماده خشک و اسانس (74 و 33/3158 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در شرایط آبیاری بعد از تخلیه 25 درصد رطوبت قابل استفاده خاک و با کود اوره حاصل گردید و تنش کم‌آبی شدید سبب کاهش 44 درصدی عملکرد ماده خشک و اسانس گردید. در این تحقیق 36 ترکیب در اسانس شناسایی گردید که بیشترین درصد مربوط به ترکیبات منتول، منتون، منتوفوران، پیپریتون و منتول استات بود. تنش کم‌آبی (آبیاری بعد از تخلیه 40 و 55 درصد رطوبت قابل استفاده خاک)، سبب افزایش کیفیت اسانس (افزایش منتول و منتون و کاهش منتوفوران و پولگون) گردید. همچنین کاربرد همه انواع کود نیتروژن، علاوه بر افزایش کیفیت اسانس سبب افزایش عملکرد اسانس نیز گردید. در مجموع می‌توان نتیجه گرفت تنش آبی متوسط همراه با کاربرد کود نیتروژن (خصوصا اوره به‌تنهایی و یا به‌صورت تلفیقی با ورمی‌کمپوست)، سبب افزایش کیفیت اسانس نعناع فلفلی گردیده است. افزایش کیفیت اسانس در اثر تنش کم‌آبی، باعث کاهش عملکرد اسانس گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of different irrigation regimes and fertilization on essential oil yield and ‎composition of peppermint essential oil (Mentha piperita L.)‎

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hosein Ebrahimi- Sborezi 1
  • Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres-Sanavy 2
  • Abolfazl Baghbani- Arani 3
  • Rezvan Karami Borz- Abad 4

1 M.Sc. Student, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran‎

2 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran‎

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Agriculture Science, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Agriculture Science, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effects of water deficit and nitrogen fertilizers on peppermint’s essential oil yield and its compounds, the current experiment was conducted in Research Field of Tarbiat Modares University in 2018, based on split with three replications. The experimental treatments consisted of three irrigation regimes (respectively after depleting 25, 40 and 55% of available water in root growth zone) as the main factor and six fertilizer treatments based on nitrogen requirement as sub-factors. The results showed that the highest essential oil yield was obtained under normal irrigation conditions with urea, while severe water deficit stress caused a reduction of 44% in dry matter and essential oil yield. In this study, 36 compounds were identified in essential oil. The most important components of essential oil were menthol, menthon, menthofuran, piperitone and menthol acetate. Water deficit increased the quality of essential oil (increased menthol and menthon and decreased menthofuran and polygon). In this regard, the use of nitrogen fertilizer increased both the quality and yield of essential oil. In general, it can be concluded that moderate water deficit accompanied with nitrogen fertilizer (urea alone or in combination with vermicompost) might increase the quality of peppermint’s essential oil. Increasing essential oil quality caused by water deficit, reduced quantitative essential oil yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Azocompost
  • Drought stress
  • essential oil composition
  • Urea
  • vermicompost‎
  1. Abdi, Gh., Shokrpour, M. & Salami, S. A. (2019). Essential oil composition at different plant growth development of Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) under water deficit stress. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 22(2), 431-440.
  2. Abyar, S., Fakheri, B., Mahdinajad, N. & Harati Rad. M. (2017). Effects of different levels of vermicompost on growth indices and essential oils of peppermint (Mentha piperita) under different irrigation regimes. Journal of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, 13(2), 29-42. (In Farsi).
  3. Alves, L. F., Bonfim, F. P. G., Oliveira, S. G., Campos, M. G., Bolina, C. O. & Marques, M. O. M. (2018). Biomass, content, yield and chemical composition of mint (Mentha x villosa ) essential oil in response to withholding irrigation. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 12(04), 519-523
  4. Arancon, N. Q., Edwards, C. A., Bierman, P., Metzger, J. D. & Lucht, C. (2005). Effects of vermicomposts produced from cattle manure, food waste and paper waste on the growth and yield of peppers in the field. Pedobiologia, 49(4), 297-306.
  5. Baghbani- Arani, A. (2017). Quantitative and qualitative assessment of (Trigonella foenum-graecum) under drought stress during the vegetative and reproductive stage in response to zeolite and vermicompost. Ph.D. Thesis Tarbiat Modares University Faculty of Agriculture. Pp: 567. (In Farsi).
  6. Baghbani- Arani, A., Modarres-Sanavy, S. A. M., Mashhadi Akbar Boojar, M. & Mokhtassi Bidgoli, A. (2017). Towards improving the agronomic performance, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and pigments in fenugreek using zeolite and vermicompost under deficit water stress. Industrial Crop & Products, 109, 346-357.
  7. Bahrami, H. A. & Saber Hamishegi, S. M. (2015). Vegetarian nutrition guide. Organization of Academic Jahad Publications. 579 p. (In Farsi).
  8. Charles, D. J., Joly, R. J. & Simon, J. E. (1990). Effects of osmotic stress on the essential oil content and composition of peppermint. Phytochemistry, 29, 2837-2840.
  9. Costa, A. G., Bertolucci, S. K. V., Chagas, J. H., Ferraz, E. O. & Pinto. J. E. B. P. (2013). Biomass production, yield and chemical composition of peppermint essential oil using different organic fertilizer sources. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, 37(3), 202-210.
  10. Daneshmand, F., Arvin, M. J. & Kalantari, K. M. (2009). Effect of acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) on salt and osmotic stress tolerance in Solanum bulbocastanum in vitro: enzymatic antioxidants. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, 6(1), 92-99.
  11. Fejéra, J., Gruľová, D. & De Feo, V. (2017). Biomass production and essential oil in a new bred cultivar of peppermint (Mentha×piperita). Industrial Crops and Products, 109, 812-817.
  12. Hassanpour, H., Khavari-Nejad, R. A., Niknam, V., Razavi, Kh. & Najafi, F. (2014). Effect of penconazole and drought stress on the essential oil composition and gene expression of Mentha pulegium (Lamiaceae) at flowering stage. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 36, 1167-1175.
  13. Izhar, M., Khan, M., Yasmin, T. & Yousaf Zahid, N. (2015). Differential effect of fertilizers on menthol contents in Mint (Mentha arvensis). American Research Journal of Agriculture, 1(1), 55-60.
  14. Kapoor, R., Giri, B. & Mukerji, K. G. (2004). Improved growth and essential oil yield and quality in (Foeniculum vulgare mill) on mycorrhiza inoculation supplemented with bio-fertilizer. Bioresource Technology, 93(3), 307-311.
  15. Kazem Alvandi, R., Sharifan, A. & Aghazadeh Meshghi, M. (2010). Study of chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of peppermint essential oil. Journal of Comparative Pathobiology, 7(4), 355-364.
  16. Keshavarz, H., Modarres Sanavy, S. A. M. & Mehdipour Afra, M. (2018). Organic and chemical fertilizer affected yield and essential oil of two Mint species. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 21(6), 1674-1681.
  17. Keshavarz, H., Modarres Sanavy, S. A. M., Sefidkon, F. & Mokhtassi-Bidgoli, A. (2020). Effect of organic fertilizers and urea fertilizer on phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, yield and yield components of peppermint (Mentha piperita) under drought stress. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 17(4), 661-672. (In Farsi).
  18. Kheiry, A., Tori, H. & Mortazavi, N. (2017). Effects of drought stress and jasmonic acid elicitors on morphological and phytochemical characteristics of peppermint (Mentha piperita). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 33(2), 268-280. (In Farsi).
  19. Khorasaninejad, S., Mousavi, A., Soltanloo, H., Hemmati, Kh. & Khalighi, A. (2011). The effect of drought stress on growth parameters, essential oil yield and constituent of peppermint (Mentha piperita). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5(22), 5360-5365. (In Farsi).
  20. Leghari, S. J, Wahocho, N. A, Laghari, G. M, Laghari, A. H, Bhabhan, G. M. & Talpur, K.H. (2016). Role of nitrogen for plant growth and development: a review. Advances in Environmental Biology, 10(9), 209 - 218.
  21. Leicacha, S. R., Garaub, A. M., Guarnaschellib, A. B., Yaber Grassa, M. A., Sztarkera, N. D. & Analia Dato, A. (2010). Changes in Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oil composition as response to drought preconditioning. Journal of Plant Interactions, 5(3), 205-210.
  22. Marino, S., Ahmad, U., Ferreira, M. I. & Alvino, A. (2019). Evaluation of the effect of irrigation on biometric growth, physiological response, and essential oil of Mentha spicata (L.). Water, 11(2264), 1-16.
  23. Mehrafarin, A., Naqdi Badi, H. A., Pourhadi, M., Hadavi, E., Ghavami, N. & Kadkhoda, Z. (2011). Phytochemical and agronomic response of peppermint (Mentha piperita) to biofertilizers and urea fertilizer. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 10(4), 107-118. (In Farsi).
  24. Omid Beigi, R. (1997). Findings about production and process of medicinal plants. Tarahane Nashr Publication. 424p. (In Farsi).
  25. Omidbaigi, R. (2009). Production and processing of medicinal plants (Vol. 2). Astan Qods Razavi. 438p. (In Farsi).
  26. Ormeno, E. & Fernandez, C. (2012). Effect of soil nutrient on production and diversity of volatile terpenoids from plants. Current Bioactive Compounds, 8(1), 71 -79
  27. Poshtdar, A., Ebdali Mashhadi, A., Moradi, F., Siadat, S. A. & Bakhshandeh, A. (2016). Investigation of ecological and phytochemical response of medicinal plant. Mentha piperita L. in different levels of nitrogen fertilizers in Khuzestan region. Journal of Ecophytochemistry of Medicinal Plants, 13(4), 19-32. (In Farsi).
  28. Rios-Estepa, R., Turner, G. W., Lee, J. M., Croteau, B. & Lange, B. M. (2008). A systems biology approach identifies the biochemical mechanisms regulating monoterpenoid essential oil composition in peppermint. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(8), 2818 - 2823.
  29. Rostami, G. H., Moghadam, M., Saeedi Poya, E. & Ajdanian, L. (2018). Effect of humic acid foliar application on some morpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of green mint (Mentha spicata) under drought stress. Enviromental Stresses in Crop Sciences, 12(1), 95-110. (In Farsi).
  30. Salehi, A. (2011). Effect of vermicompost and zeolite on the quantitative and qualitative performance of Matricaria chamomilla in achieving a sustainable agricultural system. Trabiat Modares University. Ph.D. Thesis Tarbiat Modares University, Faculty of Agriculture, Iran. (In Farsi).
  31. Seif Sahandi, M., Naghdi Badi, H., Mehrafarin, A., Khalighi-Sigaroodi, F. & Sharifi, M. (2019). Changes in essential oil content and composition of Peppermint (Mentha piperita) in responses to Nitrogen application. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 18(4), 81-98. (In Farsi).
  32. Sheteawi, S.A. & Tawfik, K. M. (2007). Interaction effect of some biofertilizers and irrigation water regime on mung bean (Vigna radiata) growth and yield. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 3(3), 251-262.
  33. Sifola, M. I. & Barbieri, G. (2006). Growth, yield and essential oil content of three cultivars of basil grown under different levels of nitrogen in the field. Scientia Horticulturae, 108(4), 408-413.
  34. Yang, Y. C., Lee, H. C., Lee, S. H., Marshall Clark, J. & Ahn, Y. J. (2005). Ovicidal and adulticidal activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark essential oil compounds and related compounds against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculicidae). International Journal for Parasitology, 35, 1595-1600.
  35. Yousefzadeh, S., Modarres-Sanavy, S. A. M., Sefidkon, F. & Ghiasy Oskuee, M. (2016). Effect of biofertilizer, azocompost and nitrogen on oil yield and essential oil content of Dracocephalum moldavica Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 46 (4), 601-611. (In Farsi).