تأثیر ژل آلوئه‌ورا‎ ‎برکاهش سرمازدگی، پوسیدگی و حفظ ویژگی‌های کیفی میوه انار ‏‏(‏Punica granatum L.‎‏) طی دوره انبارمانی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

2 دانشیار، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

3 استادیار، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

چکیده

انار (Punica granatum L.) از میوه‌های نیمه­گرمسیری و حساس به سرمازدگی است، لذا نگهداری آن در سردخانه با محدودیت­هایی همراه می­باشد. در این مطالعه تأثیر پوشش ژل آلوئه­ورا (0، 40 و 80 درصد) بر سرمازدگی، کیفیت تغذیه­ای و پوسیدگی میوه انار طی 90 روز نگهداری در دمای 4 درجه سانتی­گراد و رطوبت نسبی 90-85 درصد مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نمونه­برداری جهت سنجش صفات مورد نظر طی سه دوره 30، 60 و 90 روزه انجام گرفت. نتایج نشان­ داد تیمار ژل آلوئه­ورا درصد سرمازدگی و پوسیدگی را به طور معنی‌داری کاهش داد و پس از 90 روز انبارمانی کمترین میزان سرمازدگی (16/11 درصد) و پوسیدگی (66/18 درصد) در میوه‌هایی تیمارشده با ژل آلوئه­ورا 80 درصد مشاهده شد. این تیمار همچنین سطح مالون­دی­آلدهید (به عنوان شاخص پراکسیداسیون لیپیدهای غشا)، نشت الکترولیت و کاهش وزن میوه را به خوبی کنترل نموده است. علاوه بر این، تیمار 80 درصد آلوئه­ورا موجب افزایش ظرفیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی و فعالیت آنزیم­های سوپراکسید دیسموتاز، کاتالاز و آسکوربات پراکسیداز و حفظ میزان اسید آسکوربیک شد. مقادیر بالای فنول کل، فلاونوئید و آنتوسیانین در میوه‌های تیمار شده با ژل آلوئه­ورا مشاهده شد که در نتیجه فعالیت بالای آنزیم فنیل­­آلانین­آمونیالیاز و فعالیت پایین آنزیم پلی­فنول اکسیداز بود. در نتیجه، کاربرد ژل آلوئه­ورا با غلظت 80 درصد، به عنوان یک پوشش طبیعی، می­تواند و ایمن موجب افزایش تحمل به تنش سرمایی و حفظ خواص کیفی میوه انار در طول دوره انبارمانی شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Aloe vera gel on chilling injury, decay and nutritional quality of ‎pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit‏ ‏during cold storage

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sanaz Molaei 1
  • Vali Rabiei 2
  • Ali Soleimani 2
  • Farhang Razavi 3
1 Ph.D. Candidate, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Pomegranate (punica granatum L.) is one of the subtropical fruits and sensitive to chilling injury, so preservation of that in cold storage is associated with some limitations. In this study the impacts of Aloe vera gel (0, 40 and 80 %) on chilling injury, nutritional quality and decay of pomegranate fruit, during 90 days at 4 ºC and 85-90 % relative humidity were evaluated. Sampling to determination of intended criteria were done at 30, 60 and 90 days of cold storage. Results showed that Aloe vera gel decreased the chilling injury and decay incidence significantly and the lowest level of chilling injury (11.6 %) and decay incidence (18.66 %) were observed in fruits with 80% of Aloe vera gel treatment after 90 days of storage. Also this treatment controlled well the levels of malondialdehyde (as an indicator of membrane lipids peroxidation), electrolyte leakage, and weight loss. Furthermore, 80% of Aloe vera gel treatment enhanced the antioxidant capacity and the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase and preserved the ascorbic acid content at higher level. High levels of total phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins were observed in Aloe vera gel treated pomegranate fruits, as a result of a higher activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and a low activity of polyphenol oxidase. In conclusion, applying of Aloe vera gel in 80 % concentration, as an natural cover, could increase cold stress tolerance and preserve nutritional values of pomegranate fruits during the storage period.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • antioxidant capacity
  • electrolyte leakage
  • Malondialdehyde
  • total phenol‎
  1. Abolfathi, A., Esna Ashari, M., Azizi, A. & Sayyari, M. (2016). The effect of Aloe vera gel coating on storage life and some quality characteristics in pomegranate fruit cv. Malas saveh. In: Proceeding of 9th Congress on Horticultural Science, 24-27 Jan., Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran, pp. 1-4. (In Farsi).
  2. Aghdam, M.S. & Bodbodak, S. (2013). Physiological and biochemical mechanisms regulating chilling tolerance in fruits and vegetables under postharvest salicylates and jasmonates treatments. Scientia Horticulturae, 156, 73–85.
  3. Ahmed, M. J., Singh, Z. & Khan A. S. (2009). Postharvest Aloe vera gel-coating modulates fruit ripening and quality of ‘Arctic Snow’ nectarine kept in ambient and cold storage. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 44, 1024–1033.
  4. Ali, S., Khan, A. S., Nawaz, A., Anjum, M. A., Naz, S., Ejaz, S. & Hussain, S. (2019). Aloe vera gel coating delays postharvest browning and maintains quality of harvested litchi fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 157, 110960.
  5. (2017). Agriculture Statistic of Iran. Deputy Planning and Economic, Ministry of Agriculture-Jahad, Iran, Retrieved 11 July 2018 from http://www.maj.ir/Dorsapax/userfiles/Sub65/Amarnamehj194-95-site.pdf (In Farsi).
  6. Babalar, M., Pirzad, F., Sarcheshmeh, M. A. A., Talaei, A. & Lessani, H. (2017). Argenine treatment attenuates chilling injury of pomegranate fruit during cold storage by enhancing antioxidant system activity. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 137, 31-37.
  7. Castillo, S., Navarro, D., Zapata, P.J., Guillen, F., Valero, D., Serrano, M. & Martinez-Romero, D. (2010). Antifungal efficacy of Aloe vera in vitro and its use as a preharvest treatment to maintain postharvest table grape quality. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 57, 183–188.
  8. Cheng, S., Wei, B., Zhou, Q., Tan, D. & Ji, S. (2015). 1-Methylcyclopropene alleviates chilling injury by regulating energy metabolism and fatty acid content in ‘Nanguo’ pears. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 109, 130–136.
  9. Dehghan, G. & Khoshkam, Z. (2012). Tin (II)-quercetin complex synthesis, spectral characterization and antioxidant activity. Food Chemistry, 131, 422-427.
  10. De Rodrıguez, D.J., Hernández-Castillo, D., Rodrıguez-Garcıa, R. & Angulo-Sánchez, J. L. (2005). Antifungal activity in vitro of Aloe vera pulp and liquid fraction against plant pathogenic fungi. Industrial Crops and Products, 21, 81–87.
  11. Ehteshami, S., Abdollahi, F., Ramezanian, A., & Dastjerdi, A. M. (2020). Maintenance of quality and bioactive compounds in pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) by combined application of organic acids and chitosan edible coating. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 44(9), e13393.
  12. Garcia-Alonso, M., Rimbach, G., Rivas-Gonzalo, J.C. & De Pascual-Teresa, S. (2004). Antioxidant and cellular activities of anthocyanins and their corresponding vitisins a studies in platelets, monocytes, and human endothelial cells. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 52, 3378-3384.
  13. Ghasemnezhad, M., Zareh, S., Rassa, M. & Hassan-Sajedi, R. (2013). Effect of chitosan coating on maintenance of aril quality, microbial population and PPO activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum cv. Tarom) at cold storage temperature. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93, 368-374.
  14. Ghazimoghadam, M., Selahvarzi, Y. & Abedi, B. (2021). Increasing the shelf life and preserving of the quality of apple fruit ̔ Golab̕ using an edible coating of Aloe vera gel and essential oil of Shirazi thyme. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 51(4), 899-911. (In Farsi).
  15. Giusti, M. M. & Wrolstad, E. (2001). Anthocyanins: Characterization and measurement with UV–visible spectroscopy. In: E. Wrolstad (Ed), Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry. (pp. F1.2.1–F1.2.13.) Wiley, New York.
  16. Heber, D. & Bowerman, S. (2009). California pomegranates: an ancient fruit is new again. Nutrition Today, 44(4), 180-184.
  17. Hodges, D. M., Lester, G. E., Munro, K. D. & Toivonen, P. (2004) Oxidative stress: importance for postharvest quality: oxidative stress: postharvest fruits and vegetables. HortScience., 39, 924-929.
  18. Kader, A. A. (2006). Postharvest biology and technology of pomegranates. In: N. P. Seeram. R. N. Schulman. & D. Heber (Eds), Pomegranates, Ancient Roots to Modern Medicine. (pp.211–218.) CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton.
  19. Khorram, F., Ramezanian, A. & Hosseini, S. M. H. (2017). Effect of different edible coatings on postharvest quality of ‘Kinnow’ mandarin. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 11, 1827–1833.
  20. Luo, Z., Chen, C. & Xie, J. (2011). Effect of salicylic acid treatment on alleviating postharvest chilling injury of ‘Qingnai’ plum fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 62, 115-120.
  21. Lado, J., Rodrigo, M. J., Lopez-Climent, M., Gomez-Cadenas, A. & Zacarias, L. (2016). Implication of the antioxidant system in chilling injury tolerance in the red peel of grape fruit. Postharvest Biology Technology, 111, 214-223.
  22. Marpudi, S.L., Abirami, L.S.S., Pushkala, R. & Srividya, N. (2011). Enhancement of storage life and quality maintenance of papaya fruits using Aloe vera based antimicrobial coating. Indian Journal of Biotechnology, 10, 83-89.
  23. Martinez-Romero, D., Alburquerque, N., Valverde, J.M., Guillen, F., Castillo, S., Valero, D. & Serrano, M. (2006). Postharvest sweet cherry quality and safety maintenance by Aloe vera treatment: a new edible coating. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 39, 93–100.
  24. Mirdehghan, S. H., Rahemi, M., Martínez-Romero, D., Guillén, F., Valverde, J. M., Zapata, P. J., Serrano, M. & Valero, D. (2007). Reduction of pomegranate chilling injury during storage after heat treatment: role of polyamines. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 44, 19-25.
  25. Morillon, V., Debeaufort, F., Blond, G., Capelle, M. & Voilley, A. (2002). Factors affecting the moisture permeability of lipid-based edible films: a review. Food Science and Nutrition, 42, 67-89.
  26. Nanda, S., Rao, R. & Krishnamurthy, S. (2001). Effects of shrink film wrapping and storage temperature on the shelf life and quality of pomegranate fruits cv. Ganesh. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 22, 61-69
  27. Nguyen, T. B. T., Ketsa, S. & Van Doorn, W. G. (2003). Relationship between browning and the activities of polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in banana peel during low temperature storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 30, 187-193.
  28. Paladines, D., Valero, D., Valverde, J.M., Diaz-Mula, H., Serrano, M. & Martinez-Romero, D. (2014). The addition of rosehip oil improves the beneficial effect of Aloe vera gel on delaying ripening and maintaining postharvest quality of several stone Postharvest Biology and Technology, 92, 23–28.
  29. Palafox-Carlos, H., Yahia, E., Islas-Osuna, M., Gutierrez-Martinez, P., Robles-Sunchez, M. & Gonzalez-Aguilar, G. (2012). Effect of ripeness stage of mango fruit (Mangifera indica, cv. Ataulfo) on physiological parameters and antioxidant activity. Scientia Horticulturae, 135, 7-13.
  30. Palou, L., Crisost, C.H. & Garner, D. (2007). Combination of postharvest antifungal chemical treatments and controlled atmosphere storage to control gray mold and improve storability of wonderful pomegranates. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 43, 133-142.
  31. Pan, Y., Chen, L., Chen, X., Jia, X., Zhang, j., Ban, Z. & Li, X (2019). Postharvest intermittent heat treatment alleviates chilling injury in cold‐stored sweet potato roots through the antioxidant metabolism regulation. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 43(12), e14274.
  32. Pitt, J. & Hocking, A. D. (1999). Fungi and food spoilage. Aspen Publ. Inc., Gaithersburg, Maryland.
  33. Purwanto, Y. A., & Hutabarat, O. S. (2012). Effect of heat shock treatment and Aloe vera coating to chilling injury symptom in tomato (Lycopersicon asculantum). Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian, 26(1), 47-51.
  34. Rasouli, M., Saba, M.K. & Ramezanian, A. (2019). Inhibitory effect of salicylic acid and Aloe vera gel edible coating on microbial load and chilling injury of orange fruit. Scientia Horticulturae, 247, 27-34.
  35. Safizadeh, M.R. (2021). Effects of shrink film wrapping, wax coating and paper packaging on the quality attributes of pomegranates (Punica granatum) cvs. ‘Eshkafto’ and ‘Rabbab’ during cold storage. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 52(2), 405-418. (In Farsi).
  36. Sarabia, J.E.L., Clares, V.P.L., Clares, R.A.R. & Hernández, V.P. (1999). Actividad antiflamatoria y cicatrizante del unguento rectal de Aloe vera (Sábila). Planta Medicia journal, 4, 106–109.
  37. Sayyari, M., Babalar, M., Kalantari, S., Serrano, M. & Valero, D. (2009). Effect of salicylic acid treatment on reducing chilling injury in stored pomegranates. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 53, 152-154.
  38. Sayyari, M., Castillo, S., Valero, D., Diaz-Mula, H. M. & Serrano, M. (2011). Acetyl salicylic acid alleviates chilling injury and maintains nutritive and bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity during postharvest storage of pomegranates. Postharvest Biology Technology, 60, 136-142.
  39. Sayyari, M., Aghdam, M. S., Salehi, F. & Ghanbari, F. (2016). Salicyloyl chitosan alleviates chilling injury and maintains antioxidant capacity of pomegranate fruits during cold storage. Scientia Horticticulturae, 211, 110-117.
  40. Schotsmans, W. C., DeLong, J. M., Larrigaudière, C., Prange, R. K. & Yahia, E. M. (2009). Effects on physiological disorders. In: E. M. Yahia (Ed.), Modified and Controlled Atmospheres for the Storage, Transportation, and Packaging of Horticultural Commodities. (pp.177-210.) CRC Press.
  41. Selcuk, N. & Erkan, M. (2014). Changes in antioxidant activity and postharvest quality of sweet pomegranates cv. Hicrannar under modified atmosphere packaging. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 92, 29-36.
  42. Siboza, X. I., Bertling, I. & Odindo, A. O. (2014). Salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate improve chilling tolerance in cold-stored lemon fruit (Citrus limon). Journal of Plant Physiology, 171, 1722-1731
  43. Shah, S. & Hashmi, M. S. (2020) Chitosan–Aloe vera gel coating delays postharvest decay of mango fruit. Horticulture, Environment and Biotechnology, 61 (2), 279-289.
  44. Singleton, V. L. & Rossi, J. A. (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic phosphotungstic acid reagents. American Journal of. Enology and Viticulture, 16, 144-158.
  45. Sogvar, O.B., Koushesh Saba, M. & Emamifar, A. (2016). Aloe vera and ascorbic acid coatings maintain postharvest quality and reduce microbial load of strawberry fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 114, 29-35.
  46. Supapvanich, S., Mitrsang, P., Srinorkham, P., Boonyaritthongchai, P. & Wongs-Aree, C. (2016). Effects of fresh Aloe vera gel coating on browning alleviation of fresh cut wax apple (Syzygium samarangenese) fruit cv. Taaptimjaan. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 53, 2844-2850.
  47. Taheri, M., Heidari, M. & Zarei, M. (2019). Effects of Aloe vera gel and storage duration on some biochemical indices in minimally processed pomegranate fresh arils. Iranian Journal of Plant Production, 42 (4), 495-508. (In Farsi).
  48. Terada, M., Watanabe, Y., Kunitomo, M. & Hayashi, E. (1978). Differential rapid analysis of ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid 2-sulfate by dinitrophenylhydrazine method. Analytical Biochemistry, 84, 604-608.
  49. Valverde, J. M., Valero, D., Martinez-Romero, D., Guillen, F., Castillo, S. & Serrano, M. (2005) Novel edible coating based on Aloe vera gel to maintain table grape quality and Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 53, 7807–7813.
  50. Vieira, J. M., Flores-López, M. L., de Rodriguez, D. J., Sousa, M. C., Vicente, A. A. & Plant Med Martins, J. T. (2016). Effect of Chitosan-Aloe vera coating on postharvest quality of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 116, 88–97.
  51. Vogler, B.K. & Ernst, E. (1999). Aloe vera: a systematic review of its clinical effectiveness. British Journal of General Practice, 49, 823–828.
  52. Wang, H., Cao, G. & Prior, R. L. (1996). Total antioxidant capacity of fruits. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 44, 701–705.
  53. Wang, Q., Ding, T., Zuo, J., Gao, L. & Fan, L. (2016). Amelioration of postharvest chilling injury in sweet pepper by glycine betaine. Postharvest Biology Technology, 112, 114-120.
  54. Wang, L., Farooq, S, U., Xie, B., Hu, S., Jin, P. & Zheng, Y. (2019). Biochemical and molecular effects of glycine betaine treatment on membrane fatty acid metabolism in cold stored peaches. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 159, 58-69.
  55. Wang, J., Lv, M., He, H., Jiang, Y., Yang, J. & Ji, S. (2020). Glycine betaine alleviated peel browning in cold-stored ‘Nanguo’ pears during shelf life by regulating phenylpropanoid and soluble sugar metabolisms. Scientia Horticulturae, 262, 109100.
  56. Yao, W., Xu, T., Farooq, S, U., Jin, P. & Zheng, Y. (2018). Glycine betaine treatment alleviates chilling injury in zucchini fruit (Cucurbita pepo) by modulating antioxidant enzymes and membrane fatty acid metabolism. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 144, 20-28.
  57. Zhang, X., Shen, L., Li, F., Meng, D. & Sheng, J. (2013). Amelioration of chilling stress by arginine in tomato fruit: changes in endogenous arginine catabolism. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 76, 106-111.
  58. Zhishen, J., Mengcheng, T. & Jianming, W. (1999). The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chemistry, 64, 555-559.