تأثیر سولفات آمونیوم بر شاخص‌های رشد، عملکرد و خصوصیات فیتوشیمیایی مرزه تابستانه رقم ساترن (‏Satureja ‎hortensis L. cv. Saturn‏)‏

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 استاد، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

2 استادیار، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه جهرم ‏

3 استادیار، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

4 استادیار، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی فارس، بخش منابع طبیعی

5 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

چکیده

جهت ارزیابی تأثیر سطوح مختلف سولفات آمونیوم بر شاخص­های رشد و فیتوشیمیایی گیاه مرزه تابستانه رقم ساترن (Satureja hortensis L. cv. Saturn)، آزمایشی بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 5 تیمار و 3 تکرار به اجرا درآمد. تیمارها شامل پنج سطح مختلف سولفات آمونیوم (شاهد (عدم مصرف)، 40، 60، 80 و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار) بود که به‌صورت سرک در مرحله گلدهی کامل اعمال گردید. بوته‌های مربوط به هر تیمار برداشت شدند و صفات مورد بررسی شامل صفات مورفولوژیک (ارتفاع گیاه، تعداد شاخه­های جانبی، عرض بوته، قطر ساقه، طول میانگره­ها)، عملکرد ماده خشک، فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی، میزان ترکیبات فنلی، میزان رزمارینیک اسید و کارواکرول اندازه‌گیری شد. با افزایش سطوح مختلف سولفات آمونیوم، ارتفاع گیاه، تعداد شاخه جانبی، عرض بوته، قطر ساقه، طول میانگره و عملکرد ماده خشک و میزان ترکیبات فنلی افزایش معنی‌داری پیدا کرد. بیشترین میزان فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی در تیمار 40 کیلوگرم مشاهده شد و با افزایش کاربرد سولفات آمونیوم کاهش یافت. بیشترین میزان رزمارینیک اسید (93/10 میلی­گرم در گرم وزن خشک) در تیمار 80 کیلوگرم سولفات آمونیوم بود و کمترین میزان (85/6 میلی­گرم در گرم وزن خشک) در تیمار شاهد اندازه­گیری شد. بالاترین میزان کارواکرول (92/6 میلی­گرم در گرم وزن خشک) در تیمار 80 کیلوگرم سولفات آمونیوم به‌دست آمد و بعد از آن تیمارهای 40، 60 و 100 کیلوگرم در یک سطح قرار داشتند و کمترین میزان (5/5 میلی­گرم) مربوط به تیمار شاهد بود. با توجه به نتایج به‌دست آمده، تیمار 80 کیلوگرم در هکتار سولفات آمونیوم علاوه بر افزایش شاخص­های رشد و عملکرد، موجب افزایش میزان کارواکرول و رزمارینیک اسید گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of ammonium sulfate on growth indices, morphological and phytochemical ‎characteristics of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L. cv. Saturn)‎

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mesbah Babalar 1
  • Saeideh Mohtashami 2
  • Leila Tabrizi 3
  • Vahid Rowshan 4
  • Hosien Mohammadi 5
1 Professor, Student, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, ‎Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Jahrom University, Jahrom, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, ‎Karaj, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Natural Resources, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, ‎Iran
5 Former M. Sc. Student, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate, the effect of different levels of ammonium sulfate on morphological and phytochemical characteristics of summer savory, an experiment based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five treatments and three replications on Karaj climate conditions was conducted. The treatment including five levels of ammonium sulfate consist of: control (without fertilizer), 40, 60, 80 and 100 kg/ha of ammonium sulfate that as split application was applied. At full flowering stage, the plant samples of all treatments were harvested and desired factors such as morphological characteristics (plant height, lateral shoot number, plant diameter and stem diameter), biomass, Antioxidant activity, polyphenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid and carvacrol contents were measured. With increasing levels of ammonium sulfate, plant height, number of lateral shoots, plant diameter, stem diameter, internode length and dry matter yield were significantly increased. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in 40 kg ammonium sulfate treatment and increasing in ammonium sulphate concentration was decreased antioxidant activity. The maximum content of rosmarinic acid (10.93 mg per g dry weight) related to 80 kg ammonium sulfate treatment and the lowest content (6.85 mg per g dry weight) was measured in control. The highest amount of carvacrol (6.92 mg per g dry weight) was obtained in 80 kg of ammonium sulfate treatment, followed by 40, 60 and 100 kg treatments on the same level and the minimum content (5.05 mg) in control were detected. According to the results, the treatment of 80 kg/ha of ammonium sulfate, in addition to increasing growth and yield factors, inhansed the amount of carvacrol and rosmarinic acid.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant
  • fertility
  • flavonoid
  • phenol
  • Satureja hortensis
  • Yield‎
  1. Abbaszadeh, B. (2005). Effect of nitrogen and its utilization methods on the lemon balm essential oil. M.A. Thesis. Islamic Azad University of Karaj. (in Farsi)
  2. Alaoui Jamali, C., Kasrati, A., Bekkouche, Kh. Hassani, L., Wohlmuth, H., Leach, D. & Abbad, A. (2014). Cultivation and the application of inorganic fertilizer modifies essential oil composition in two Moroccan species of Thymus. Industrial Crops and Products, 62, 113-118.
  3. Anwar, M., Patra, D. D., Chand, S., Alpesh, K., Naqvi, A. A. & Khanuja, S. P. S. (2005). Effects of organic manures and inorganic fertilizer on growth herb and oil yield, nutrient accumulation and oil quality of French basil. Commun. Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 36, 1737-1746.
  4. Aziz E.E., El-Danasoury M. M. & Craker L. E. (2010). Impact of sulphur and ammonium sulphate on dragonhead plants grown in newly reclaimed soil. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, 16(2), 126-135.
  5. Babalar, M., Mumivand, H., Hadian, J. & Fakhr Tabatabaei, S. M. (2010). Effects of nitrogen and calcium carbonate on growth, rosmarinic acid content and yield of Satureja hortensis L. Journal of Agricultural Science, 2(3), 92-98.
  6. Baranauskiene, R., Venskutonis, P. R., Viskelis, P. & Dambrauskiene, E. (2003). Influence of nitrogen fertilizers on the yield and composition of thyme (Thymus vulgaris). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 7751-7758.
  7. Bernath, J. (2008). Production ecology of secondary plant productions. In: L.E. Craker and J.E. Simon (eds) Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture and Pharmacoligy, Vol.1. Oryx Press, Phoenix, Arizona.
  8. Bouyoucos, C. J. (1962). Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soil. Agronomy Journal, 54, 464-465.
  9. Bremner, J.  M. (1996).  Nitrogen total. P. 1085-1122. In Sparks, D.L. et al., Method of soil analysis. Published by: Soil Science Society of America, Inc. American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
  10. Bryant, J. P., Chapin, III, F. S. & Klein, D. R. (1983). Carbon/nutrient balance of boreal plants in relation to vertebrate herbivory. Oikos, 40, 357-368.
  11. Chapin III, F. S., Shaver, G. R. & Kedrowski, R. A. (1986). Environmental controls over carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus fractions in Eriophorum vaginatum in Alaskan tussock tundra. Journal of Ecology, 74,167-195.
  12. Christin, H. C., Dean, A. K. & David, E. K. (2005). Nitrogen concentration affects nutrient and carotenoid accumulation in parsley. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 28, 285-297.
  13. Dadkhah, A., Amini Dehghi, M. & Kafi, M. (2012). Effect of Different Levels of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizers on Quantity and Quality Yeild of Matricaria recutita. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 10 (2), 321-326. (in Farsi)
  14. Dadvand Sarab, M., Naghdi Badi, H., Nasri, M., Makkizadeh, M. & Omidi, H. (2008). Changes in Essential Oil Content and Yield of Basil in Response to Different Levels of Nitrogen and Plant Density. Journal of Medicinal Plants. 3 (27), 60-70. (in Farsi)
  15. Dordas, C. A. & Sioulas, C. (2008). Safflower yield, chlrophyll content, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency response to nitrogen fertilization under rainfed conditions. Industrial Crops and Products, 27,75-85.
  16. Fanasca, S., Colla, G., Maiani, G., Venneria, E., Rouphael, Y., Azzini, E. & Saccardo, F. (2006). Changes in antioxidant content of tomato fruits in response to cultivar and nutrient solution composition. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54, 4319-4325.
  17. Fennell, C. W., Light, M. E., Sparg, S. G., Stafford, G. I. & Van Staden, J. (2004). Assessing African medicinal plants for efficacy and safety: agricultural and storage practices. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 95, 113-121.
  18. Flores, P., Navarro, J. M., Garrido, C., Rubio, J. S. & Martinez, V. (2004). Influence of Ca2+, K+ and NO3-fertilization on nutritional quality of pepper. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 84, 569-574.
  19. Ghani, A., Azizi, M.,Pahlavanpour, A. & Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, M. (2009a). Comparative study on the essential oil content and composition of Achillea eriophora DC. in field and wild conditions. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 8(2), 120-128. (in Farsi)
  20. Ghani, A., Saharkhiz, M. J., Hassanzadeh, M. & Massada, K. (2009b).  Changes in the Essential Oil Content and Chemical Compositions of Echinophora platyloba DC. During Three Different Growth and Developmental Stages. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 12 (2), 162-171.
  21. Hadian, J., Tabatabaei, S. M. F., Naghavi, M. R., Jamzad, Z. & Ramak-Masoumi, R. (2008). Genetic diversity of Iranian accessions of Satureja hortensis L. based on horticultural traits and RAPD markers. Scientia Horticulturae, 115, 196-202.
  22. Haghparast Tanha, M. (1992). Plant nutrition and metabolism. Rasht, Islamic Azad University Press, 194 p. (in Farsi)
  23. Hajhashemi, V., Sadraei, H., Ghannadi, A. R. & Mohseni, S. (2000). Antispasmodic and antidiarrhoeal affect of Satureja hortensis L. essential oil. Journal Ethnopharmacology, 71, 1-2.
  24. Haluschak, P. (2006). Laboratory methods of soil analysis. Canada-Manitoba soil survey, 3-133.
  25. Herms, D. A. & Mattson, W. J. (1992). The dilemma of plants: to grow or defend. Quarterly Review of Biology, 67, 283-335.
  26. Justesen, U., Knuthsen, P. & Leth, T. (1998). Quantitative analysis of flavonols, flavones and flavanons in fruits, vegetables and beverages by HPLC with photodiode array and mass spectrometric detection. Journal of Chromatography, 799, 101-110.
  27. Kraus, T. E. C., Zasoski, R. J. & Dahlgren, R. A. (2004). Fertility and pH effects on polyphenol and condensed tannin concentrations in foliage and roots. Plant and Soil, 262, 95-109.
  28. Lila, M. A. (2004). Anthocyanins and Human Health: An In Vitro Investigative Approach. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 5, 306- 313.
  29. Lindsay, W. & Norvell, W. A. (1978). Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 42(3), 421-428.
  30. Liu, D., Liu, W., Zhu, D., Geng, M., Zhou, W. & Yang, T. (2010). Nitrogen effects on total flavonoids, chlorogenic acid and antioxidant activity of the medicinal plant Chrysanthemum morifolium. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 173, 268-274.
  31. Loeppert, R. H., Hallmark C. T. & Koshy M. M. (1984). Routine procedure for rapid determination of soil carbonates. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 48(5), 1030-1033.
  32. Losak, T. & Richter, R. (2004). Split nitrogen doses and their efficiency in poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) nutrition. Plant Soil and Environment, 50(11), 484-488.
  33. Maerere, A. P., Kimbi, G. G. & Nonga, D. L. M. (2001). Comparative effectiveness of animal manures on soil chemical properties, yield and root growth of Amaranthus (Amaranthus cruentus L.). African Journal of Science and Technology, 1(4), 14-21.
  34. Mahler, R. L. (2008). Nutrients plants require for growth, University of Idaho College of Agricultural and Life Sciences. accessed May 6, 2008, http://info.ag.uidaho.edu/pdf/CIS/CIS1124.pdf
  35. Menichini, F., Tundis, R., Bonesi, M., Loizzo, M. R., Conforti, F., Statti, G., Di Cindi, B., Houghton, P. J. & Menichini, F. (2009). The influence of fruit ripening on the phytochemical content and biological activity of Capsicum chinense Jacq. Habanero. Food Chemistry, 114, 553-560.
  36. Moghaddam, M., Ehdaie, B. & Waines, J. D. G. (1997). Genetic variation and inter relationships of agronomic characters in landraces of bread wheat from south eastern Iran. Euphytica, 95, 361-369.
  37. Morgen, L. M., Olsson, M. E. & Gertsson, U. E. (2006). Quercetin content in field-cured onions (Allium cepa L.): effects of cultivar, lifting time, and nitrogen fertilizer level. Journal of Agricalture and Food Chemistry, 54, 6185-6191.
  38. Muzika, R. M. & Pregitzer, K. S. (1992). Effect of nitrogen fertilization on leaf phenolic production of grand fir seedlings. Trees, 6, 241-244.
  39. Nguyen, Ph., Kwee, E., & Niemeyer, E. (2010). Potassium rate alters the antioxidant capacity and phenolic concentration of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves. Food Chemistry, 123, 1235-1241.
  40. Oke, F., Aslim, B., Ozturk, S. & Altundag, S. (2009). Essential oil composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Satureja cuneifolia Ten. Food Chemistry, 112, 874-879.
  41. Olsen, S., Cole, C., Watanabe, F. & Dean, L. (1954). Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. USDA Circular Nr 939, US Gov.Print. Office, Washington, D.C.
  42. Omidbaigi, R. (2005). Production and processing of medicinal plants. Volume 2, Behnashr Publication, 438p. (in Farsi)
  43. Omidbaigi, R., Hadjiakhoondi, A. & Saharkhiz, M. J. (2003). Changes in content and chemical composition of Pimpinella anisum oil at various harvest times. Jornal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 6 (1), 46-50.
  44. Popova, M., Bankova, V., Butovska, D., Petkov, V., Nikolova-Damyanova, B., Sabatini, A. G., Marcazzan, G. L. & Bogdanov, S. (2004). Validated methods for the quantification of biologically active constituents of poplar-type propolis. Phytochemistry Analysis. 15, 235-240.
  45. Rousi, M., Häggman, J. & Bryant, J. P. (1987). The effect of bark phenols upon mountain hare barking of winter-dormant Scots pine. Holarctic Ecology, 10, 60-64.
  46. Safi-Khani, F., Heidari Sharif Abad, H., Siadat, S. A., Sharifi, Ashorabadi, E., seyednejad, S. M. & Abaszadeh, B. (2006). Drought effects on yield and morphological traits of Dracocephalum moldavica L. Iranian Journal ol Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 36(2), 183-190. (in Farsi)
  47. Salama, Z. A., El Baz, F. K., Gaafar, A. A. & Fathy Zaki, M. (2015). Antioxidant activities of phenolics, flavonoids and vitamin C in two cultivars of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) in responses to organic and bio-organic fertilizers. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 14, 91-99.
  48. Sefidkon, F., Kalvandi, R. & Mirza, M. (2003). Chemical variation of the essential oil of Nepeta heliotropifolia in different stage of plant growth. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 19 (3), 255-267. (in Farsi)
  49. Sefidkon, F., Sadeghzadeh, L., Teimouri, M., Asgari F. & Ahmadi, Sh. (2007). Antimicrobial effects of the essential oils of two Satureja species (S. Khuzistanica Jamzad and S. bachtiarica Bunge) in two harvesting time. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 23(2), 174-182. (in Farsi)
  50. Sell, C. S. (2003). A Fragrant Introduction to Terpenoid Chemistry. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Thomas Graham House, Scientific Park, Milton Road, Cambridge, UK, pp. 410.
  51. Shafea, L., Safari, M., Emam, Y. & Mohammadi Nejad, Gh. (2011). Effect of Nitrogen and Zinc Fertilizers on Leaf Zinc and Chlorophyll Contents, Grain Yield and Chemical Composition of Two Maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrids. Seed and Plant Production Journal, 27(2), 235-246. (in Farsi)
  52. Sifola, M. I. & Barbieri, G. (2006). Growth, yield and essential oil content of three cultivars of basil grown under different levels of nitrogen in the field. Scientia Horticulture, 108, 408-413.
  53. Singh, M., Masroor, M., Khan, A. & Naeem, M. (2016). Effect of nitrogen on growth, nutrient assimilation, essential oil content, yield and quality attributes in Zingiber officinale Rosc. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 15(2), 171-178.
  54. Sousa, C., Pereira, D. M., Pereira, J. A., Bento, A., Rodrigues, M. A., Dopico-García, S., Valentão, P., Lopes, G., Ferreres, F., Seabra, R. M. & Andrade, P. B. (2008). Multivariate analysis of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC) phenolics: influence of fertilizers. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 2231-2239.
  55. Sumner, M.E. & Miller, W. P. (1996). Cation exchange capacity, and exchange coefficients. In: D.L. Sparks (ed.) Methods of soil analysis. Part 2: Chemical properties (3rd ed.). ASA, SSSA, CSSA, Madison, WI.
  56. Tarozzi, A., Hrelia, S., Angeloni, C., Morroni, F., Biagi, P., Guardigli, M., Cantelli-Forti, G. & Hrelia, P. (2006). Antioxidant effectiveness of organically and non-organically grown red oranges in cell culture systems. European Journal of Nutrition, 45, 152-158.
  57. Walkley, A. & Black, I. A. (1934). An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science, 37, 29-38.
  58. Winkel-Shirly, B. (2002). Biosynthesis of flavonoids and effects on stress. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 5, 218-223.
  59. Wojdylo, A., Oszmianski, J. & Czemerys, R. (2007). Antioxidant activity and phenolic compound in 32 selected herbs. Food Chemistry, 1005, 940-949.
  60. Worthington, V. (2001). Nutritional quality of organic versus conventional fruits, vegetables, and grains. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 7, 161-173.
  61. Yazdani, D., Shahnazi, S. & Seyfi, H. (2004). Medicinal plant cultivation. Medicinal Plants Central Research Publication. 169p. (in Farsi)
  62. Zare, Sh., Sirousmehr, A., Ghanbari, A. & Tabatabaei, J. (2013). Changes in essential oil and some quantitative properties of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.) under the influence of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and compost solid waste. Journal of Agricultural Research, 11 (1), 191-199. (in Farsi)