ارزیابی شاخص‌های کیفی روغن پنج رقم زیتون در منطقه طارم زنجان

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 استاد گروه علوم باغبانی دانشکده علوم کشاورزی دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

3 بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان زنجان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، زنجان، ایران

4 دانشجوی دکترای اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

چکیده

روغن زیتون یکی از قدیمی­ترین روغن­های گیاهی بوده و ششمین منبع تأمین روغن جهان است. عوامل مختلفی به­ویژه رقم و اقلیم، کیفیت روغن زیتون را تحت تأثیر قرار می­دهند؛ بنابراین پژوهش حاضر به­منظور ارزیابی کیفیت روغن پنج رقم در ایستگاه تحقیقات زیتون طارم -زنجان در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 1395 اجرا شد. میوه­های ارقام زرد، کالاماتا، کایسی، کرونائیکی و آربکین در شاخص رسیدگی 3-4 برداشت و بلافاصله پس از برداشت استخراج روغن انجام شد و برخی خصوصیات کیفی روغن زیتون مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که در بین ارقام مورد بررسی، کایسی دارای پایین­ترین عدد یدی و ارزش پراکسید و در عین حال بالاترین مقدار K232، کارتنوئید کل، فنل کل، اولئیک­اسید و نیز نسبت اولئیک­اسید به لینولئیک­اسید روغن زیتون بود. هم‌چنین در ارزیابی ترکیبات اسید چرب روغن زیتون، مشخص شد که کرونائیکی بالاترین مقدار ایکوسنوئیک­اسید، آراشیدیک­اسید و لینولئیک­اسید را دارا بود. بیشترین  مقدار کلسترول و دلتا. 7. اونسترول در رقم زرد مشاهده گردید؛ در حالی­که کالاماتا دارای بیشترین  میزان استیگماسترول، بتاسیتوسترول و دلتا.5. 24. استیگماستادینول بود. با توجه به نتایج به­دست­آمده در بین ارقام مورد مطالعه، می‌توان رقم کایسی را بر اساس کیفیت روغن زیتون به­عنوان رقم مناسب برای شرایط آب و هوایی منطقه طارم معرفی کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of oil quality indices of five olive cultivars in Tarom region of Zanjan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farhad Akbari 1
  • Reza Fotouhi Ghazvini 2
  • Mehdi Taheri 3
  • Arash Mohammadi 4
1 department of Horticulture Science, Faculty of Agriculture Science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture Science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
3 Soil and Water Research Department ,Zanjan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Zanjan, Iran
4 Ph.D. Student of plant breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
چکیده [English]

Olive oil is one of the oldest known vegetable oils and ranking sixth source in the world production. Many factors, particularly the cultivar and climate affect olive oil quality. Therefore, present study was conducted to evaluate the oil qulity of five olive cultivars in Tarom olive research station of Zanjan based on completely randomized design with three replications in 2016. Fruits of Zard, Kalamata, Kayssi, Koroneiki and Arbequina cultivars were harvested at 3- 4 maturity index and immediately after harvest oil extraction was performed and some qualitative characteristics of olive oil were evaluated. Results showed that among the studied cultivars, Kayssi had the lowest iodine and peroxide value, and at the same time had the highest K232, total carotenoid, total phenol, oleic acid and also oleic to linoleic acid ratio of olive oil. Moreover, in the evaluation of the fatty acid composition of olive oil, it was revealed that Koroneiki had the highest eicosenoic acid, arachidic acid and Linoleic acid. The highest amount of cholesterol and Δ7-avenasterol was observed in Zard cultivar, while Kalamata had the highest stigmasterol, β-sitosterol and Δ5-24-stigmastadienol. According to the obtained results, among the studied cultivars according to quality of olive oil Kayssi cultivar can introduce as a suitable cultivar for Tarom weather conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fatty acids
  • oleic acid
  • peroxide value
  • sterol compounds
  • total phenol
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