عملکرد، میزان عناصر و گالیک اسید در میوه سماق تحت تیمارهای مختلف کودی

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، تهران، ایران

2 محقق، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی خصوصیات مورفولوژی، عملکرد، عناصر و گالیک اسید در میوه سماق (Rhus coriaria L.) تحت تأثیر کودهای دامی و شیمیایی آزمایشی به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار در موسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع اجرا شد. عامل کود‏ دامی (M) در سه سطح 0 (شاهد)، 20 و 40 تن در هکتار و عامل کود‏ شیمیایی (مخلوط نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم) شامل N0P0K0، N50P25K25 و N100P50K50 کیلوگرم در هکتار از منبع اوره، سوپر­فسفات­تریپل و اکسیدپتاسیم بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر متقابل کود دامی × شیمیایی بر ارتفاع بوته و قطر تنه در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی‌دار بود. همچنین کود دامی بر تعداد و عرض برگ، عملکرد خوشه تر و خشک در سطح احتمال پنج درصد و بر طول و وزن برگ در سطح احتمال یک درصد اثر معنی‌داری داشت. اثر کود شیمیایی بر وزن برگ در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی‌دار بود. اثر کود دامی بر نیتروژن، فسفر، پتاسیم و آهن در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی‌دار بود. مقایسه میانگین صفات مورفولوژی نشان داد که بیشترین تعداد برگ، طول برگ، وزن برگ، عملکرد خوشه تر و عملکرد خوشه خشک، به­ترتیب با میانگین‌های 44/683 عدد در هر گیاه، 25/37 سانتی‌متر، 9/1754 گرم در گیاه، 44/301 گرم در گیاه و 44/281 گرم در گیاه از مصرف 40 تن در هکتار کود دامی به­دست آمد، بیشترین درصد نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم، به­ترتیب با میانگین‌های 9/1، 32/0 و 71/0 درصد از مصرف 40 تن در هکتار حاصل شد. بیشترین مقدار گالیک اسید از مصرف کود دامی 40 تن در هکتار با 74/0 میلی‌گرم در کیلوگرم میوه به­دست آمد. نتایج نشان داد که سماق، گیاه کودپذیری بوده و با مصرف کود عملکرد میوه و گالیک اسید افزایش می‌یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The yield, amount of elements and gallic acid in fruits of Sumac (Rhus coriaria) under different fertilizer treatments

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bohloul Abbaszadeh 1
  • Masoumeh Layeghhaghighi 2
  • Fatemeh Zakerian 2
  • Zohre Emami-Bistghani 2
1 Assistant Professor, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
2 Researcher, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to study morphological characteristics, yield, elements and Gallic acid contents in Rhus coriaria L. fruits under the influence of manure and chemical fertilizers, a factorial experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands. Manure factor was included control, 20 and 40 tons per hectare and chemical fertilizers (Mixture of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) were N0P0K0 (control), N50P25K25 and N100P50K50 kg ha-1 from urea, triple superphosphate and potassium oxide sources. Results showed that the interaction of manure and chemical fertilizer on plant height and trunk diameter was significant at 1% probability level. Manure had a significant effect on leaf number and width, fresh and dry yield of cluster at a probability level of 5%, and on leaf length and leaf weight at 1% probability level. The effect of chemical fertilizer on leaf weight was significant at 1% probability level. The effect of manure fertilizer on nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and iron was significant at 1% probability level. Mean comparisons of morphological traits showed that the highest number of leaves (683.44 number per plant), leaf length (24.06 cm), leaf weight (1754.9 g per plant), fresh cluster yield (301 g per plant) and dry cluster yield (281.2 g per plant) were achieved with using of 40 tons per hectare manure. The highest percent of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were obtained with mean of 1.9, 0.32 and 0.71%, respectively with consumption of 40 tons per hectare manure. The highest amount of Gallic acid was obtained from manure application of 40 tons per hectare with 0.44 mg/kg of fruit. Results showed that this plant has been affected by fertilizer and increased fruit and Gallic acid with the use of fertilizers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chemical Fertilizer
  • Gallic acid
  • Manure fertilizer
  • Rhus coriaria
  • yield
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