اثر تغییر روش‌ آبیاری جویچه‌ای به قطره‌ای بر صفات فیزیولوژیکی و عملکرد انگور بیدانه سفید (Vitis vinifera L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق دکتری پژوهشکده انگور و کشمش، دانشگاه ملایر

2 استاد آبیاری و زهکشی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان

3 دانشیار، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی قزوین و عضو گروه پژوهشی به‌زراعی و به‌نژادی پژوهشکده انگور و کشمش، دانشگاه ملایر

4 استادیار زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه ملایر

5 استادیار علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ملایر

چکیده

به­‌منظور ارزیابی اثر تغییر شیوه‌ آبیاری جویچه‌ای به قطره‌ای، بر عملکرد و برخی صفات فیزیولوژیکی انگور بیدانه سفید، آزمایشی در‌ قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار و در طی سال‌های زراعی 94-93 و 95-94 روی تاک‌های 14 ساله اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل: آبیاری جویچه‌ای1 (I1)، قطره‌ای به‌­همراه جویچه‌ای (2I)، بابلر (3I)، قطره‌ای1 (4I)، ترکیب قطره‌ای سطحی و زیر سطحی (I5)، قطره‌ای2 (I6)، قطره‌ای3 (I7) و جویچه‌ای2 (I8) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که کلروفیل کل در تیمارهای قطره‌ای کاهش و اسید‌آمینه پرولین و گلایسین­بتائین افزایش یافت. تیمار قطره‌ای1 (I4) بیشترین غلظت کربوهیدرات‌های محلول برگ و از‌ طرفی پایداری غشای کمتری داشت. از نظر عملکرد، تیمارهای جویچه‌ای2، قطره‌ای2 (I6) و قطره‌ای3 (I7)، به­ ترتیب با 43، 31 و 28 تن در هکتار، بیشترین عملکرد محصول را به‌ خود اختصاص داده بودند. همچنین تیمار قطره‌ای3 I7 با 2/1 گرم بیشترین وزن حبه را داشت. از نظر کارایی مصرف آب ،(WUE)، تیمار قطره‌ای2 (I6) با 3/10 کیلوگرم انگور بر مترمکعب آب، مصرف آب بهینه‌تری نسبت به سایر تیمارهای آبیاری به‌ویژه جویچه‌ای1 و جویچه‌ای2 داشت. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که تغییر شیوه آبیاری جویچه‌ای1 به قطره‌ای، باعث اعمال تنش خشکی در تاک‌های مسن می‌گردد؛ اما عملکرد کاهش نمی‌یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of altering furrow to drip irrigation systems on physiological traits and yield of Sultana grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sajad Ghasedi Yulghonolu 1
  • Hamid Zare Abyaneh 2
  • Mohammad Ali Nejatian 3
  • Maasumeh Maleki 4
  • Roohollah Karimi 5
1 Fromer Ph.D. Student, Institute of Grapes and Raisins, Malayer University, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu Ali University, Hamedan, Iran
3 Associate Professor, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, Qazvin, and Department of Crop and Breed, Institute of Grapes and Raisins, Malayer University, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Science, Malayer University, Malayer, Hamedan, Iran
5 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Malayer university, Malayer, Hamedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the effect of changing from furrow to drip irrigation methods on physiological traits and yield of Sultana grapevine, the experiment was set based on randomized complete block design with four replications during two years including 2015 and 2016 on 14-year-old vines irrigated by furrow method. Treatments of experiment consist of: furrow1 (I1), combined drip and furrow irrigation (I2), Bubbler irrigation (I3), drip1 (I4), combined surface and sub-surface drip irrigation (I5), drip 2 (I6), drip 3 (I7) and furrow 2 (I8). Results showed that total chlorophyll decreased in pressurized irrigation treatments while proline and GB was increased. The treatment of I4 had the highest concentration of soluble carbohydrates and least cell membrane stability. The yield of I8,I6 and I7 were 43, 31 and 28 ton/ha, respectively that were more than other treatments. The I7 treatment, had the most berry weight (1.2 gram). In terms of WUE, the I6 (10.3) was more than other treatments especially I1 and I8 in this study. This research showed that changing furrow irrigation (I1) to drip method, caused drought stress in old vineyards, but the yield was not reduced.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Brix
  • drip
  • furrow
  • membrane stability
  • WUE
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