مقایسه برخی ویژگی‌های مورفولوژیک و فیزیولوژیک شش ترکیب پیوندی زیتون، تحت شرایط تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق دکتری، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

3 استاد، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

4 دانشیار، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور مطالعه پاسخ­های مورفولوژیک و فیزیولوژیک برخی ترکیب­های پیوندی زیتون، آزمایش گلدانی به­صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی، با شش ترکیب پیوندی زیتون، در شرایط گلخانه، در محل دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تهران (کرج) طی 1394-1395 انجام شد. آزمایش اول شامل سه تیمار شاهد (آبیاری در حد ظرفیت مزرعه)، تنش آبی (رطوبت خاک در حد نقطه پژمردگی) و بازیابی (آبیاری مجدد) با چهار تکرار بوده است، که صفات فیزیولوژیک شامل محتوای نسبی آب، شاخص پایداری غشاء سلولی، وزن خشک برگ و نسبت وزن اشباع به وزن خشک برگ مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. در آزمایش دوم که شامل دو تیمار شاهد (آبیاری در حد ظرفیت مزرعه) و تنش آبی (رطوبت خاک در حد نقطه پژمردگی) بوده است؛ برخی صفات مورفولوژیک شامل تعداد شاخه­های جانبی، سطح برگ، رشد شاخه اصلی، طول بلندترین ریشه و وزن تر و خشک ریشه اندازه­گیری شدند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که پایه­های مورد مطالعه، بر تمامی صفات مورد بررسی در آزمایش اول اثر معنی­داری داشته­اند. در آزمایش دوم، پایه کرونائیکی، دارای بیشترین سطح برگ، رشد شاخه اصلی، وزن خشک ریشه و طول بلندترین ریشه بوده است؛ در حالی­که پایه آربکین، بیشترین تعداد شاخه­های جانبی را به خود اختصاص داد. در بین ترکیب­های پیوندی مورد مطالعه، ترکیب پیوندی ’کرونائیکی بر کنسروالیا‘ عملکرد بهتری از سایر ترکیب­های پیوندی، در شرایط تنش داشته است و می­تواند مورد توجه بیشتری قرار گیرد.  اگرچه و با توجه به گلدانی بودن، این پژوهش نمی­تواند نتایج کاربردی قابل ارائه در کشور و مخصوصاً در مناطقی که همراه با تنش خشکی و همچنین سرمای زمستانه شدید است را بیان نماید؛ بنابراین نیاز به پژوهش­های تکمیلی در شرایط مزرعه، با اندازه­گیری صفات مرتبط با این تنش­ها می­باشد، تا بتوان در چنین شرایطی راه­کار عملی در توصیه عمل پیوند، برای باغ­های زیتون را ارائه نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of some morphological and physiological characteristics of six olive graft combinations under drought stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Dadashpour 1
  • Akhtar Shekafandeh 2
  • Alireza Shahsavar 2
  • Saeed Eshghi 3
  • Reza Oladi 4
1 Former Ph. D. Student, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Shiraz, P. O. Box 65186-71441, Shiraz, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Shiraz, P. O. Box 65186-71441, Shiraz, Iran
3 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Shiraz, P. O. Box 65186-71441, Shiraz, Iran
4 Associate Professor, College of Agirculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 31585-4314, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate morphological and physiological responses of six olive graft combinations to drought, this potting research was done in factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with four replications under greenhouse conditions in the University of Tehran, Karaj during 2015-2016. The first experiment included control (field capacity), water stress (permanent wilting point) and recovery (re-watering) with four replications that traits such as relative water content (RWC), cell membrane injury (CMI), leaf dry weight (LDW) and turgor weight/dry weight (TW/DW) were investigated. The secondary experiment included control (field capacity) and water stress (permanent wilting point) treatments that many morphological traits including lateral shoot number (LSN), leaf area (LA), main stem growth length (SL), root length (RL), root dry and fresh weight (RDW and RFW) were calculated. Variance analysis results showed that studied rootstocks had significant effect on all the investigated traits in the first experiment. In the second experiment, rootstock “Koroneiki” showed the highest LA, SL, RDW and RL whereas rootstock “Arbequina” owned the most LSN. Among the studied olive grafting combinations, Co/Ko had better performance than other grafting combinations under water deficit. Thus, that combination can be considered more. Since the current study is a pot-based research, the results presented are not applicable to the fields especially in the areas experiencing drought and cold winter tensions. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct complementary investigations on the related characteristics in the field conditions and then it might be advisable for practical grafting at olive orchards in Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grafting
  • membrane stability
  • Rootstock
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