تأثیر سه روش خشک‌کردن بر ویژگی‌های بیوفیزیکی و بیوشیمیایی کشمش

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه مهندسی فضای سبز، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه ملایر

2 عضو دپارتمان به‌زراعی انگور، پژوهشکدۀ انگور و کشمش، دانشگاه ملایر

3 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه ملایر

چکیده

کشمش مهم‌ترین فرآوردۀ انگور در ایران است که در فرآیند خشک شدن حبه­ها به­دست می­آید. با توجه به تولید بالای انگور در کشور بهینه‌سازی روش­های تهیۀ کشمش به‌منظور افزایش تقاضا در بازارهای جهانی ضروری است. در این بررسی تأثیر سه روش تهیۀ کشمش شامل سایه­خشک، آفتاب­خشک و تیزابی (کربنات­پتاسیم+ اتیل­اولئات) بر ویژگی‌های بیوفیزیکی و بیوشیمیایی کشمش حاصل از انگور بیدانۀ ­سفید شامل عملکرد کشمش، سرعت خشک شدن، وزن خشک، وزن پوشال و همچنین ظرفیت پاداکسندگی یا آنتی‌اکسیدانی (با روش­های DPPH وFRAP­)، فلاونوئیدکل، فنل­کل، پروتئین کل، قندهای­ محلول (فروکتوز، گلوکز، ساکارز، رافینوز)، اسیدهای آلی (آسکوربیک، مالیک، تارتاریک) و برخی عنصرهای غذایی در قالب طرح کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در هر تیمار در پژوهشکدۀ انگور و کشمش دانشگاه ملایر انجام شد. در شهریورماه سال 1394 میوه­ها بر پایۀ شاخص درجۀ بریکس 22 برداشت و ضمن تیمار روی بارگاه­های طبقه‌ای توری تا رسیدن به رطوبت 15درصد قرار داده شدند. بنا بر نتایج اختلاف معنی­داری (01/0p≤ ) بین ویژگی‌های بیوفیزیکی و بیوشیمیایی هر سه روش خشک­کردن مشاهده شد. بیشترین زمان خشک­کردن مربوط به روش سایه­خشک و کمترین زمان مربوط به روش تیزابی بود. همچنین بیشترین و کمترین سرعت تبدیل انگور به کشمش به ترتیب متعلق به روش­های خشک­کردن تیزابی و سایه­خشک بود. عملکرد کشمش تولیدی در روش تیزابی بیشترین و در روش آفتاب­خشک کمترین بود. محتوای فنل­کل، فلاونوئیدکل و ظرفیت پاداکسندگی تعیین‌شده با دو روش ­DPPH و FRAP­ در کشمش تیزابی در مقایسه با کشمش­های آفتاب­خشک و سایه­خشک به‌طور معنی­داری (01/0p≤ ) بیشتر بود. همچنین در روش تیزابی غلظت بالاتر قندهای­ محلول فروکتوز، گلوکز، ساکارز، رافینوز و اسیدهای آلی (به‌استثناء اسید آسکوربیک) در مقایسه با دیگر روش­ها مشاهده شد. بنابراین روش تیزابی به دلیل تبدیل انگور به کشمش در بازۀ زمانی کمتر میزان اکسید شدن ترکیب‌های فنلی و فلاونوئیدی در مقایسه با روش‌های آفتابی و سایه­خشک کمتر بوده و همچنین افزون بر ارزش تغذیه­ای بالاتر ظرفیت­ پاداکسندگی بالاتری نیز داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of three drying methods on biophysical and biochemical properties of raisin

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rouhollah Karimi 1 2
  • Farzad Mirzaei 3
1 Assistance Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Malayer University, Iran | Member of Production and Genetic Improvement Department, Iranian Grape and Raisin Institute, Malayer University, Iran
2 Assistance Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Malayer University, Iran | Member of Production and Genetic Improvement Department, Iranian Grape and Raisin Institute, Malayer University, Iran
3 Former M. Sc. Student, Faculty of Agriculture, Malayer University, Iran
چکیده [English]

Raisin is the main product of grape in Iran that obtains through drying process. Regarding to mass production of grape in this country, optimization of the raisin preparation methods in order to increase world market demand is required. In this research, effects of three different methods of drying including of sun drying, shad drying and alkaline emulsion drying (potassium carbonate + ethyl oleate) were investigated on biophysical and biochemical properties' of Sultana grape's raisin including raisins yield, drying rate, dry weight, and rachis weight and also antioxidant capacity (based on DPPH, FRAR methods), total flavonoids, total phenols, total protein, soluble sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, raffinose), organic acids (ascorbic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid) and some nutrients under a completely randomized design with three replicates in Iranian Grape and Raisin Institute of Malayer University. In early Sep. of 2015, fruits were harvested manually based on TSS index of 21 (°Brix) and then were laid on drying net racks until they reached 15% moisture. Based on results, significant differences were found among three drying methods regarding to both biophysical and biochemical properties'. The highest drying period was related to shade drying methods while the lowest was found in alkaline emulsion drying method. Furthermore, the highest and lowest grape to raisin drying rate was belonged to alkaline emulsion and shade drying methods, respectively. Raisin yield was highest in alkaline emulsion drying method and lowest in sun drying method. The highest total phenol, total flavonoid and measured antioxidant capacity by DPPH and FRAR was found to be higher in alkaline emulsion drying method compared to other methods. Moreover, soluble sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose and raffinose) and organic acids (tartaric, malic but not ascorbic acid) was higher in alkaline emulsion drying method than other methods. In conclusion, owing to faster grape to raisin drying rate observed in alkaline emulsion drying method, the oxidation of phenolic compounds and flavonoids of these raisins was lower compared to both sun-and shade drying methods which showed higher nutritional value and antioxidant capacity than other methods.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Conversion rate
  • grapes
  • Raisin
  • soluble sugars
  • tartaric acid
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