تأثیر کودهای آلی و شیمیایی بر برخی صفات زراعی و ویژگی‌های کیفی گیاه دارویی سیر

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد شهر ری

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم زراعی و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران

3 دانشیار، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد شهر ری

چکیده

روش‌های مختلف تغذیۀ گیاه، از جمله مهم‌ترین عامل‌هایی است که در بیشتر مرحله‌های رشد گیاهان زراعی و باغی باعث افزایش رشدونمو و دستیابی به عملکرد بالا می­شود. به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر سطوح مختلف کودهای دامی و شیمیایی بر ویژگی‌های کمی و کیفی بوتۀ سیر در شرایط آب‌وهوایی همدان، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 91-90 در مزرعه­ای زراعی در همدان انجام گرفت. آزمایش در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی به‌صورت کرت­های یک‌بار خردشده و در سه تکرار به اجرا در آمد. تیمارهای آزمایش سطوح مختلف کود دامیِ گوسفندی در چهار سطح متفاوت شامل: 0، 10، 20 و 30 تن در هکتار، به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و همچنین سطوح متفاوت کود شیمیایی نیتروژنه به‌صورت اوره در چهار سطح مختلف شامل: 0، 50، 100 و 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‌عنوان عامل فرعی بودند. صفات زراعی مورد بررسی شامل: عملکرد سیرچه‌های بذری کشت‌شده، میانگین قطر کل پیاز و شمار سیرچه‌های آن بودند و پس از آن ویژگی­های کیفی سیر از نظر اسید پیروویک کل، سفتی بافت و درصد اسانس سیرچه، اندازه­گیری شده و روند تغییرپذیری کیفی آن­ها بررسی شد. بنا بر نتایج این پژوهش، تیمار مخلوط 30 تن کود دامی به همراه 150 کیلوگرم کود نیتروژن، بالاترین میزان عملکرد سیرچه‌های بذری کشت‌شده معادل 13290 کیلوگرم در هکتار را داشت و تیمار مخلوط 10 تن کود دامی به همراه 100 کیلوگرم کود شیمیایی، بالاترین مقدار پیروویک اسید به میزان 114 میکرومول بر گرم و بیشترین درصد اسانس سیرچه را معادل 97/2 درصد به دست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of manure and chemical fertilizers on some of the agronomic traits and quality characteristics of Garlic (Allium sativum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Torabi 1
  • Gholam-Ali Akbari 2
  • Ali-Akbar Tajalli 3
1 Former M.Sc. Student of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Shah-E-Rey Branch, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Agronomy and Plant Breeding Department, Abureyhan Campus, University of Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Shah-E-Rey Branch, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Plant nutrition various methods, are the most important factor which positively affects the plant growth and crop productivity. In order to evaluate effects of different levels of animal and chemical fertilizers on quality and quantity characteristics of Garlic in Hamadan climatic conditions, an experiment was conducted in the growing seasons of successive years of 2011- 2012 at the agronomical farms of Hamadan. The experiment was performed as split plot layout based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The main factor was the four levels of animal fertilizer (0,10,20 and 30 ton per ha) and sub factor was four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg in ha). The agronomic traits that studied in this research consisted of yield and yield components, total bulb diameter and clovlet number. Then, the quality characteristics of garlic such as total pyrovic acid, texture hardness and essential oil percentage were measured and investigated. Results showed that the intermediate treatment of 30 ton per hectare, of manure mixed with 150 kg nitrogen per ha, produced the highest amount of bulb yields with 13290 kilo per hectare. Also, the experiment showed that the intermediate treatment with 10 ton per hectare, of animal fertilizer mixed with 100 kg nitrogen per ha of chemical fertilizers produced the highest amount of total pyrovic acid with 114 (micro mol/gr) and essential oil of 2/97 percent.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Garlic
  • medicinal plants
  • Organic fertilizer
  • quality characteristics
  • soil productivity
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