نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم باغی و زراعی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه علوم باغی و زراعی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار، مؤسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب، کرج، ایران

4 دانشیار، گروه علوم باغی و زراعی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران ‏

5 استادیار، گروه زراعت، واحد شهر قدس، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

10.22059/ijhs.2021.319803.1902

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر کاربرد کود دامی بر گیاه‏پالایی گیاه رعنازیبا آزمایشی به صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار اجرا شد. فاکتور سال در کرت‏های اصلی و فاکتورهای سرب در چهار سطح (صفر، 40، 80 و 120 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک) و فاکتور کاربرد کود دامی در سه سطح (صفر، 25 و 50 گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک) به صورت فاکتوریل در کرت‏های فرعی بودند. تنش اکسیداتیو ناشی از افزایش غلظت سرب در خاک باعث کاهش محتوای کلروفیل شد که در نهایت منجر به کاهش رشد و همچنین زیست‌توده گیاه گردید. با افزایش غلظت سرب در خاک فعالیت آنزیم­های کاتالاز و پراکسیداز در برگ ابتدا افزایش و سپس کاهش یافت، در حالی­که فعالیت آنزیم سوپراکسیددیسموتاز به بالاترین مقدار در بیشترین میزان غلظت سرب در خاک افزایش یافت. استفاده از کود دامی با بهبود کلروفیل و در نهایت رشد گیاه، سمیت سرب را در گیاهان کاهش داد. کاربرد کود دامی با افزایش فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی­اکسیدانی باعث کاهش پراکسیداسیون لیپیدهای غشا و پراکسید هیدروژن در گیاه شد و در نتیجه شدت تنش را در گیاهان رعنازیبا کاهش داد. تیمار 50 گرم بر کیلوگرم کود دامی تحت 120 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم سرب از بالاترین محتوای سرب اندام هوایی و ریشه به ترتیب با 72/0 و 96/1 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم برخوردار بود و بالاترین محتوای پرولین برگ نیز در این تیمار حاصل شد. بنابراین می­توان نتیجه گرفت که تیمار کود دامی نقش امیدوارکننده­ای در افزایش جذب سرب از خاک و کاهش اثرات سمی بر گیاه رعنازیبا دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Study on effect of manure on phytoremediation of blanket flower ‎‎(Gaillardia grandiflora) and soil lead uptake

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Javad Bahmanzadegan Jahromi 1
  • Vahid Abdossi 2
  • Saeed Samavat 3
  • Ali Mohamadi Torkashvand 4
  • Hamid Mozafari 5

1 Ph. D. Candidate, Department of Horticultural Science and Agronomy, Science and Research Branch, ‎Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Science and Agronomy, Science and Research Branch, ‎Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Soil and Water Research Institute, Karaj, Iran

4 Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Science and Agronomy, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran ‎

5 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of farmyard manure application on phytoremediation of blanket flower a split factorial experiment based on a randomized complete blocks design with four replications was carried out. The factor year was in main plots and lead factors at four levels (0, 40, 80 and 120 mg/kg soil) and farmyard manure application at three levels (0, 25 and 50 g/kg soil) was in sub plots. Oxidative stress caused by increasing the concentration of lead in the soil reduced the chlorophyll content, which ultimately led to reduction of plant growth as well as plant biomass. With increasing of Pb concentration in soil, activities of catalase and peroxidase in leaves, first increased and then declined, while superoxide dismutase enzyme activity ascending up to highest level of Pb concentration. The application of farmyard manure by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes reduced the peroxidation of membrane lipids and hydrogen peroxide in the plant and thus reduced the intensity of stress in blanket flower. Application of farmyard manure increased the lead concentration in the roots and shoots of blanket flower, so that the the highest lead content of shoots and roots was founded in 50 g/kg of farmyard manure under 120 mg/kg of lead in rate of 0.72 and 1.96 mg/kg, respectively, and the highest leaf proline content was obtained in this treatment. So, it can be concluded that manure fertilizer play a promising role in increasing the Pb uptake and reducing its phytotoxicity on blanket flower.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant Enzymes
  • Biomass
  • Heavy metals
  • organic matter
  • Phytoremediation
  • proline‎
  1. Aebi, H. (1984). Catalase in vitro. Methods of enzymology, 105, 121-126.
  2. Alamri, A. A., Siddiqui, M. H., Al-Khaishany, M. Y. Y., Khan, M. N., Ali, H. M., Alaraidh, I, A., Alsahli, A. A., Al-Rabiah, H., & Mateen, M. (2018). Ascorbic acid improves the tolerance of wheat plants to lead toxicity. Journal of Plant Interactions, 13(1), 409-419.
  3. Ali, R. M., Mahmoud, M. H., Abbas, H. M., & Fakhr, M. (2017). Physiological studies on the interactive effects of lead and antioxidants on Carum carvi Egyptian Journal of Botany, 57(2), 317-333.
  4. Ali, S., Muhammad, R., Abdul, W., Muhammad, B. H., Afzal, H., Shiliang, L., Abdulaziz, A. A., Abeer, H., & Abd-Allah Elsayed, F. (2018). Fulvic acid prevents chromium-induced morphological, photosynthetic, and oxidative alterations in wheat irrigated with tannery waste water. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 37(4), 1357-1367.
  5. Arnon, I. (1996). Crop production in dry regions. Leonard Hill, London 650 pp.
  6. Arshad, M., Ali, S., Noman, A., Ali, Q., Rizwan, M., Farid, M., & Irshad, M. K. (2016). Phosphorus amendment decreased cadmium (Cd) uptake and ameliorates chlorophyll contents, gas exchange attributes, antioxidants, and mineral nutrients in wheat (Triticum aestivum) under Cd stress. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 62, 533-546.
  7. Ashraf, M., & Foolad, M. R. (2007) Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 59, 206-216.
  8. Baghaie, A., Khoshgoftarmanesh, A. H., Afyuni, M., & Schulin, R. (2011). The role of organic and inorganic fractions of cow manure and biosolids on lead sorption. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 57, 11-18.
  9. Bankaji, I., Caçador, I., & Sleimi, I. (2015). Physiological and biochemical responses of Suaeda fruticosa to cadmium and copper stresses: growth, nutrient uptake, antioxidant enzymes, phytochelatin, and glutathione levels. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22, 13058-13069.
  10. Bates, L. S., Waldren, R. P., & Teare, I. D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant Soil, 39(1), 205-207.
  11. Bayat, H., & Belopukhov, S. (2019). The Effect of humic acid, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and seaweed on essential oil, growth parameters and chlorophyll content in basil (Ocimum basilicum). Agricultural Research and Technology,19(4), 192-197.
  12. Bhaduri, A. M., & Fulekar, M. (2012). Antioxidant enzyme responses of plants to heavy metal stress. Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, 11, 55-69.
  13. Blaise, D., Singh, J. V., Bonde, A. N., Tekale, K. U., & Mayee, C. D. (2005). Effects of farmyard manure and fertilizers on yield, fiber quality and nutrient balance of rain fed cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Bioresource Technology, 96, 345-349.
  14. Chaab, A., Moezzi, A., Sayyad, G., & Chorom, M. (2016). Alleviation of cadmium toxicity to maize by the application of humic acid and compost. Life Science Journal, 13(12), 56-63.
  15. Dugar, D., & Bafna, A. (2013). Effect of lead stress on chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde and peroxidase activity in seedlings of mung bean (Vigna radiata). International Journal of Research in Chemistry and Environment, 3(3), 20-25.
  16. Gadagi, R. S., Krishnaraj, P.U., Kulkarni, J. H., & Sa, T. (2004). The effect of combined Azospirillum inoculation and nitrogen fertilizer on plant growth promotion and yield response of the blanket flower Gaillardia pulchella. Scientia Horticulturae, 100, 323-332.
  17. Ghaffari, H., Tadayon, M. R., Nadeem, M., Cheema, M., & Razmjoo, J. (2019). Proline mediated changes in antioxidant enzymatic activities and physiology of sugar beet under drought stress. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 41(2), 23.
  18. Gross, J. (1991). Pigments in vegetables: chlorophylls and carotenoids. Van Nostrand Reinhold. USA.
  19. Hadi, F. (2015). A mini review on lead (Pb) toxicity in plants. Journal of Biology and Life Science, 6, 91-101.
  20. Herzog, V., & Fahimi, H. (1973). Determination of the activity of peroxidase. Analytical Biochemistry, 55, 554-562.
  21. Hu, R., Sunc, K., Suc, X., Pana, Y., Zhanga, Y., & Wanga, X. (2012). Physiological responses and tolerance mechanisms to Pb in two xerophils: Salsola passerina Bunge and Chenopodium album Journal of Hazardous Materials, 205-206, 131-138.
  22. Hu, Z. H., Zhuo, F., Jing, S. H. Li, X., Yan, T. X., Lei, L. L., Lu, R. R., Zhang, X. F., & Jing, Y. X. (2019). Combined application of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and steel slag improves plant growth and reduces Cd, Pb accumulation in Zea mays. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 21, 1-9.
  23. Iqbal, N., Masood, A., Nazar, R., Syeed, S., & Khan, N. A. (2010). Photosynthesis, growth and antioxidant metabolism in mustard (Brassica juncea) cultivars differing in Cd tolerance. Agricultural Sciences in China, 9, 519-527.
  24. Kabata Pendias, A., & Pendias, H. (2001). Trace element in soils and plants. 3rd, CRC Press, New York, USA.
  25. Kaya, C., Akram, N. A., Ashraf, M., & Sonmez, O. (2018). Exogenous application of humic acid mitigates salinity stress in maize (Zea mays) plants by improving some key physico-biochemical attributes. Cereal Research Communications, 46(1), 67-78.
  26. Kul, R., Ekinci, M., & Yildirim, E. (2019). Effects of lead stress on growth and some physiological characteristics of bean. Global Journal of Botanical Science, 7, 15-19.
  27. Kumar, P., Tewari, R. K., & Sharma, P. N. (2010). Sodium nitroprusside-mediated alleviation of iron deficiency and modulation of antioxidant responses in maize plants. AoB Plants, 2, 1-12.
  28. Lamhamdi, M., El Galiou, O., Bakrim, A., Nóvoa-Muñoz, J. C., AriasEstévez, M., Aarab, A., & Lafont, R. (2013). Effect of lead stress on mineral content and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) seedlings. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 20, 29-36.
  29. Li, Y., Zhou, C., Huang, M., Luo, J., Hou, X., Wu, P., & Ma, X. (2016). Lead tolerance mechanism in Conyza canadensis: subcellular distribution, ultrastructure, antioxidative defense system, and phytochelatins. Journal of Plant Research, 129, 251-262.
  30. Lindsay, W. L., & Norvell, W. A. (1978). Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 42, 421-428.
  31. Madhava, K. V., & Sresty, T. V. S. (2000). Antioxidative parameters in the seedlings of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan Millspaugh) in response to Zn and Ni stresses. Plant Science, 157, 113-128.
  32. Malar, S., Vikram, S. S., Favas, P., & Perumal, V. (2014). Lead heavy metal toxicity induced changes on growth and antioxidative enzymes level in water hyacinths [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)]. Botanical Studies, 55, 54.
  33. Mallhi, Z. I., Rizwan, M., Mansha, A., Ali, Q., Asim, S., Ali, S., Hussain, A., Alrokayan, S. H., Khan, H. A., Alam, P., & Ahmad, P. (2019). Citric acid enhances plant growth, photosynthesis, and phytoextraction of lead by alleviating the oxidative stress in castor beans. Plants, 8, 525.
  34. Marshner, P. (2012). Marschner's mineral nutrition of higher plants. (3rd Ed) Academic Press, London.
  35. Minami, M., & Yoshikawa, H. (1979). A simplified assay method of superoxide dismutase activity for clinical use. Clinical Chimistry Acta 92, 337-342.
  36. Mojdehi, F., Taghizadeh, M., Baghaie, A. H., Changizi, M., & Khaghani, S. (2020). Organic amendment can decrease plant abiotic stress in a soil Co‑contaminated with lead and cadmium under ornamental Sunflower cultivation. International Archives of Health Sciences, 7, 89-95.
  37. Nakano, Y., & Asada, K. (1981). Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate-specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts. Plant and Cell Physiology, 22, 867–880.
  38. Nasim, S.A., &Dhir, B. (2010). Heavy metals alter the potency of Medicinal Plants. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 203, 139-149.
  39. Nowkandeh, S. M., Noroozi, A. A., & Homaee, M. (2018). Estimating soil organic matter content from hyperion reflectance images using PLSR, PCR, MinR and SWR models in semi-arid regions of Iran. Environmental Development, 25, 23-32.
  40. Pizzeghello, D., Francioso, O., Ertani, A., Muscolo, A., & Nardi, S. (2013). Isopentenyl adenosine and cytokinin-like activity of different humic substances. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 129, 70-75.
  41. Prabha, M. L., Jayraaj, I. A., Jayraaj, R., & Rao, D. S. (2007). Effect of vermicompost on growth parameters of selected vegetable and medicinal plants. Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences, 9, 321-326.
  42. Rahimi, A., Moghaddam, S. S., Ghiyasi, M., Heydarzadeh, S., Ghazizadeh, K., & Popović-Djordjević, J. (2019). The influence of chemical, organic and biological fertilizers on agrobiological and antioxidant properties of Syrian cephalaria (Cephalaria syriaca). Agriculture, 9(6), 122-135.
  43. Riaz, A., Younis, A., Hameed, M., & Kiran, S. (2010). Morphological and biochemical responses of turf grasses to water deficit conditions. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 42(5), 3441-3448.
  44. Tangahu, B.V., Sheikh Abdullah, S. R., Basri, H., Idris, M., Anuar, N., & Mukhlisin, M. (2011). A review on heavy metals (As, Pb, and Hg) uptake by plants through phytoremediation. International Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2011, 1-31
  45. Usman, K., Abu-Dieyeh, M. H., Zouari, N., & Al-Ghouti, M. A. (2020). Lead (Pb) bioaccumulation and antioxidative responses in Tetraena qataranse. Scientific Reports. 10, 1-7-.
  46. Velikova, V., Yordanov, I., & Edreva, A. (2000). Oxidative stress and some antioxidant systems in acid rain-treated bean plants: protective role of exogenous polyamines. Plant Science, 151, 59-66.
  47. Yadav, S. K. (2010). Heavy metals toxicity in plants: An overview on the role of glutathione and phytochelatins in heavy metal stress tolerance of plants. South African Journal of Botany, 76, 167-179.
  48. Yang, G. H., Zhu, G. Y., Li, H., Han, X. M., Li, J. M., & Ma, Y. B. (2018). Accumulation and bioavailability of heavy metals in a soil-wheat/maize system with long-term sewage sludge amendments. Journal of Integrative Agriculture,17, 1861-70.
  49. Zouari, M., Elloumi, N., Labrousse, P., Ben Rouina, B., Ben Abdallah, F., & Ben Ahmed, C. (2018). Olive trees response to lead stress: Exogenous proline provided better tolerance than glycine betaine. South African Journal of Botany, 118, 158-165.