تأثیر پتاسیم و کلسیم بر خصوصیات رویشی و تعادل یونی نهال‌های‌ پیوندی سیب روی پایه‌های ‏پاکوتاه‌کننده تحت تنش شوری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

2 استاد، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 دانشیار، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

10.22059/ijhs.2018.253336.1410

چکیده

شوری خاک یکی از تنش‌های مهم غیر زنده است که با بر هم زدن تعادل عناصر معدنی، رشد و باردهی گیاهان را تحت تأثیر قرار می‌دهد. در این تحقیق به منظور مطالعه تأثیر تغذیه کلسیم و پتاسیم بر افزایش تحمل شوری درخت سیب، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی در طی دو سال انجام شد که در آن از شش محلول غذایی جهت شبیه سازی سطوح مختلف تنش که حاوی مقادیر متفاوتی از نمک کلریدسدیم به همراه تغذیه کلسیم، پتاسیم و منیزیم بود، استفاده شد. طبق نتایج، نهال‌های روی پایه MM111 در هر دو سال سریعترین و بیشترین علایم رنگ پریدگی و خشکیدگی برگ را نشان دادند و پایه M9 نسبت به دو پایه دیگر در طی هر دو سال آزمایش علایم کمتری را نشان داد. میزان همبستگی بین درصد برگ‌های خشکیده شده، ریزش برگ‌ها و محدودیت رشد رویشی با درصد کلر برگ‌ها در طی هر دو سال بالاتر از همبستگی آن با درصد سدیم برگ بود. همچنین نتایج نشان داد نهال‌های تغذیه شده با محلول غذایی D (5 میلی مولار KNO3، 5/3 میلی مولار Ca (NO3)2، 57/3 میلی مولار MgSO4 و 6 میلی مولار NaCl) توانستند در طی هر دو سال آزمایش علایم تنش شوری کمتری را نشان داده و رشد خود را حفظ کنند. نهال‌‌های روی پایه M9 در طی مدت زمان تنش شرایط بهتری داشتند و پس از پایان تنش نیز دارای قدرت زنده‌مانی و برگشت‌پذیری بالاتری از دو پایه دیگر بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of potassium and calcium on vegetative growth and mineral balance of apple ‎tree grafted on dwarfing rootstocks, under salinity stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mina Mohebbi 1
  • Mesbah Babalar 2
  • Mohammad Reza Fattahi Moghaddam 2
  • Mohammad Ali Askari Sarcheshmeh 3
1 Ph. D. Candidate, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, ‎Karaj, Iran
2 Professor, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Associate Professor, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Soil salinity is one of the most important abiotic stress that by disrupting mineral balance, affects the growth and fertility of plants. In order to investigate the effects of calcium and potassium nutrition on increasing the apple trees tolerance to salinity stress, a factorial experiment with a completely randomized design was conducted in two years, in which six nutritional solutions were used to simulate different levels of salt stress conditions by several amounts of calcium, potassium, magnesium and sodium chloride. According to the results, trees grafted on MM111 showed the earliest and the most frequent symptoms of chlorosis and necrosis in both years, and the trees grafted on M9 rootstocks showed less symptoms than two other rootstocks during the both years. In both years of experiment, correlation between percentage of necrotized leaves, leaf loss and decreasing vegetative growth with leaves chloride content was higher than their correlation with leaf sodium content. Also, the results showed that in both years of experiment, the D nutritional solution (5 mM KNO3, 3.5 mM Ca (NO3)2, 3.57 mM MgSO4 & 6 mM NaCl), could suppress the symptoms of stress in the trees and maintained their growth. Trees grafted on M9 rootstocks, were healthier during the stress period, and also after this period they had higher survival and recovery ability than the two other rootstocks.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Apple rootstock
  • ion homeostasis
  • salt stress
  • Sodium Chloride
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