بهینه‌سازی فاکتورهای کود نیتروژن و فاصله بوته روی ردیف در گیاه اسفناج رقم ‏Harrier‏ به‌روش ‏سطح پاسخ

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

2 دانشیار، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات چغندرقند، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان همدان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش ‏و ترویج کشاورزی، همدان، ایران

4 استادیار، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

چکیده

در این پژوهش بهینه­سازی دو فاکتور موثر بر تولید سبزی برگی اسفناج، کود نیتروژن و فاصله بوته روی ردیف کاشت براساس اهداف چهار سناریوی اقتصادی، سلامت غذایی ، بازارپسندی و حد مطلوب تولید اسفناج رقم "Harrier" با کمک تکنیک آماری سطح پاسخ انجام گرفت. متغیرهای مستقل شامل فاصله بوته روی ردیف کاشت (7، 11 و 15 سانتی‌متر) و سطوح کود نیتروژنی (صفر، 200 و 400 کیلوگرم اوره بر هکتار) در قالب طرح مرکب مرکزی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه تهران بررسی­شدند. صفات وزن تر برگ، زیست‌توده، شاخص سطح برگ، کارایی مصرف نیتروژن، غلظت نیترات و کلروفیل کل به عنوان متغیرهای وابسته مورد مطالعه قرارگرفتند. برازش دادها با معادله چند جمله­ای درجه دو و بهینه‌سازی پاسخ­ها با نرم‌افزار Mnitab16 انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد افزایش فاصله بوته روی ردیف تنها بر محتوای کلروفیل اثر مثبت گذاشت. سطوح بالای کود نیتروژن بر تمام متغیرهای وابسته مورد مطالعه، بجز کارایی مصرف نیتروژن، اثر افزایشی داشت. ترکیب بهینه تیمارهای متغیر مستقل و شاخص مطلوبیت برای هریک از سناریوهای اقتصادی، سلامت غذایی، بازارپسندی و حد مطلوب به ترتیب برای فاصله بوته روی ردیف 7، 48/7، 24/7 و 7 سانتی متر، کود نیتروژن 9/189، 6/60، 9/189 و 5/149 کیلوگرم بر هکتار و شاخص مطلوبیت 97/0، 77/0، 89/0 و 82/0 به‌دست آمد. بر اساس نتایج شاخص مطلوبیت، مدل سناریوی اقتصادی را در مقایسه با سناریوهای دیگر در تعیین بهینه منابع متغیر مستقل با توان بالاتری شبیه سازی می­کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Optimization of nitrogen fertilizer and plant spacing on the row parameters in ‎spinach cv. “Harrier” using response surface methodology

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farnaz Goodarzi 1
  • Mojtaba Delshad 2
  • Hamed Mansouri 3
  • Forouzandeh Soltani 4
1 Ph. D. Candidate, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of ‎Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Associate Professor. University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, ‎Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Sugar Beet Research Department, Hamedan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education ‎Center, AREEO, Hamedan, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

In this study, optimum level of nitrogen fertilizer and plant spacing on the row were investigated in spinach cv.”Harrier” based on the aims of four scenarios: economic, health of food, marketable and optimum production, using statistical response surface methodology. The independent variables including plant spacing on the row (7, 11 and 15 cm) and nitrogen fertilizer (0, 200 and 400 kg urea ha-1), were evaluated using central composite design at Research Field of University of Tehran. Leaf fresh weight, biomass, leaf area index, nitrogen use efficiency, nitrate concentration and total chlorophyll traits were considered as dependent variables. The fitting of data to second order polynomial equation and optimization of responses was performed using Mnitab16 software. Increasing of plant spacing on the row had alone a significant effect on total chlorophyll traits. High levels of nitrogen fertilizer had an increasing effect on dependent variables, except nitrogen use efficiency. The optimum combination of variables and desirability function for economic, environmental, marketable and optimal production limit scenarios were at plant spacing on the row of 7, 7.48, 7.24 and 7 cm, nitrogen fertilizer of 189.9, 60.6, 189.9 and 149.5 kg ha-1, and 0.97, 0.77, 0.9 and 0.82, respectively. Based on desirability function results, the model possesses a high power to simulate optimum level of independent variables at economic scenario than the others.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Central composite design
  • Nitrogen use efficiency
  • nitrate‎
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