تأثیر سطوح مختلف بیوچار حاصل از ضایعات رز گلخانه‌ای هیدروپونیک و کودکندرها بر رشد نشای ‏سیکلامن (‏Cyclamen persicum L.‎‏)‏

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد،‎ ‎دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران

2 استادیار،‎ ‎دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران

چکیده

تولیدکنندگان رز شاخه بریده در سراسر سال مقدار زیادی از شاخ و برگ این گیاه را از گلخانه­ها به صورت ضایعات بیرون می­ریزند که می‌تواند طی فرایندی به‌عنوان منابع غذایی جدید در تولید مورد استفاده قرار گیرد. به منظور بررسی اثر بیوچار و کود کندرها بر رشد نشای سیکلامن آزمایشی به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در 3 تکرار انجام شد. بیوچار در سه سطح صفر، 5/2 و 5 درصد وزنی و کود کندرها با فرمول کودی+TE  S 13 -MgO  3 –K 20 – P 10 - N 15 با پوشش پلیمری در سه سطح صفر، 5/1 و 3 کیلوگرم بر متر مکعب در بستر پیت ماس و پرلیت با نسبت­های 60 به 40 به­کار رفت. نتایج نشان داد بیشترین وزن تر اندام هوایی، عرض پهنک اولین برگ و محتوی کلروفیل کل در کاربرد توأم تیمار بیوچار 5 درصد وزنی و کودکندرهای 3 کیلوگرم بر متر مکعب بود. تیمار 3 کیلوگرم بر متر مکعب کود کندرها بیشترین درصد وزن خشک اندام هوایی، ارتفاع گیاه، عرض تاج­پوشش گیاه، تعداد برگ، طول ریشه، سطح برگ و محتوای کاروتنوئید را نشان داد. بیوچار و کود کندرها احتمالاً به دلیل کاهش آبشویی مصرف عناصر غذایی و افزایش کارایی آن­ها می­تواند موجب ایجاد اثر مثبت بر فرایند تولید نشای سیکلامن گردند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of different levels of soilless cultured cut rose debrises biochar and slow ‎release fertilizer on growth of Cyclamen persicum L. seedling

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Fathi 1
  • Saeed Reezi 2
  • Hamidreza Motaghian 2
  • Rahim Barzegar 2
1 M.Sc. Student , Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
چکیده [English]

Cut rose growers take out a high content of rose shoots as debrises throughout the year that can be use as a new nutrient content resources by some processes for plant nutrition. To evaluate the effect of biochar and slow release fertilizer on growth ofCyclamen persicum seedlings an experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with six replications. Biochar fertilizer used at three levels (0, 2.5 and 5% w/w) and slow release fertilizer (15N- 10P – 20K- 3MgO- 13S+ TE) with polymer coating at three levels (0, 1.5 and 3 kg/m3) in a peat-moss and perlite medium mixed (60:40% v/v). The results showed that 5% (w/w) biochar accompanying with 3 kg/m3 of slow release fertilizer had the highest shoot fresh weight, width of the first leaf and total chlorophyll content. Three kg/m3 ofslow-fertilizer showed the highestpercent of shoot dry weight, plant height, canopy width, leaf number, root length, leaf area and carotenoid content. In general, probably biochar and slow release fertilizer accelerated the growth due to increase in nutrition efficiency and reduced nutrients leaching in the medium.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fresh and dry weight of shoot
  • Plant height
  • Total chlorophyll
Adejumo, S.A., Owolabi, M.O. & Odesola, I.F. (2016). Agro-physiologic effects of compost and biochar produced at different temperatures on growth, photosynthetic pigment and micronutrients uptake of maize crop. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 11(8), 661-673.
Allaei, M., Naderi, R., Khaliqi, A. & Salami, A. (2005). Effect of different environmental treatments on seed germination (Cyclamen persicum Mill). Journal of Research and Development, 67, 36-43. (in Farsi).
Altay, H. & Muftuoglu, N. M. (2004(. The effects of varying applications of nitrogen phosphorus and potassium on the size of Cyclamen hederifolium corms grown in peat medium. In International Soil Congress (ISC) on Natural Resource Management for Sustainable Development, pp. 7-10.
Andiru, G. A., Pasian, C. C., Frantz, J. M. & Jourdan, P. (2013). Longevity of controlled-release fertilizer influences the growth of bedding impatiens. HortTechnology, 23(2), 157-164.‏
Asrar, A. W., Elhindi, K. & Abdel-Salam, E. (2014). Growth and flowering response of chrysanthemum cultivars to Alar and slow-release fertilizer in an outdoor environment. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 12(2), 963-971.‏
Birya, M., Moezi, A. & Ameri-khah, H. (2017). Effect of sugarcane bagasse biochar on crop growth in soil contaminated with cadmium and lead. Journal of Water and Soil, 31(2), 626-609. (in Farsi)
Brouki Milan, F. (2015). Effects of biochar on sunflower growth and soil water holding capacity under Saline condition. M.Sc. thesis. Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Tarbiat Modarres University, Iran. (in Farsi)
Carter, S., Shackley, S., Sohi, S., Suy, T. B. & Haefele, S. (2013). The impact of biochar application on soil properties and plant growth of pot grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and cabbage (Brassica chinensis). Agronomy, 3, 404-418.
Cieciora, M., Czuchaj, P. & Szczepaniak, S. (2006). The effect of fertilizers on growth and flowering of heterosis cultivars of Cyclamen persicum Mill from Halios group. Acta Science Polon, Hortorum Cultus, 5(2), 3-10.‏
Colomb, B., Kiniry, J. R. & Debaeke, P. (2000). Effect of soil phosphorus on leaf development and senescence dynamics of field-grown maize. Agronomy Journal, 92(3), 428-435.‏
Eghtedari Naeeni, A. (2012). Advanced techniques in soilless culture management. Khorasgan Islamic Azad University Press, 251pp. (in Farsi).
Fontes, P. C., Sampaio Júnior, J. D., Moreira, M. A., Guimarães, M. D. A., Puiatti, M. & Lani, E. R. (2008). Minituber potato seed yield as a result of nitrogen rates applied in the substrate. Horticultura Brasileira, 26(1), 116-120.‏
Ghasemi Ghahsareh, M. & Kafi, M. (2015). Floriculture. Vol 1. Ghasemi Press, 313 pp. (in Farsi).
Habibi, H., Motesharezadeh, B. & Alikhani, H. (2017). Effect of biochar and biological treatments on nutrient elements content (P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn) of Amaranthus in oil polluted soil. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research, 48 (2), 369-384. (in Farsi).
Iapichino, G. & Camerata S. G. (2012). Effects of different fertilization levels on Iberis semperflorens pot culture. In VI International Symposium on Brassicas and XVIII Crucifer Genetics Workshop 1005, pp. 443-446.‏
Javanmardi, J. (2010). Plug seedling production. Mashhad University of Jahad Press. 376pp. (in Farsi).
Kammann, C., Linsel, S., Gobling, J. W. & Koyro, H. W. (2011). Influence of biochar on drought tolerance of Chenopodium quinoa Willd and soil-plant relatios. Plant and Soil, 345, 195-210.
Kaushal, T., Onda, M., Ito, S., Yamazaki, A., Fujikake, H., Ohtake, N. & Ohyama, T. (2004). Effect of placement of urea and coated urea fertilizers on yield and quality of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seeds. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 50(8), 1245-1254.‏
Khoshkhoui, M. (1999). Plant Propagation, Principles and Practices. Shiraz University Press. 373pp. (in Farsi)
Laird, D. A., Fleming, P., Davis, D. D., Horton, R., Wang, B. & Karlen, D. L. (2010). Impact of biochar amendments on the quality of a typical Midwestern agricultural soil. Geoderma, 158,443-449.
Lehmann, J., da Silva, J. P., Steiner, C., Nehls, T., Zech, W. & Glaser, B. (2003). Nutrient availability and leaching in an archaeological anthrosol and a ferralsol of the Central Amazon basin: fertilizer, manure and charcoal amendments. Plant and Soil, 249(2), 343-357.‏
Lehmann, J.J. & Gaunt, M.R. (2006). Biochar sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems a review. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 11(2), 395-419.
Mirzakhani, A. & Azimi, M. (2010). Planting flowers and ornamental plants in the garden and house. Agricultural Extension Press, 285 pp. (in Farsi).
Mohammadi, L. (2015). The Effect of slow- release fertilizer and humic acid on the properties of (Impatiens hawkeri). M.Sc. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture Engineering, Shahrekord University, Iran. (in Farsi)
Moradi, N. (2017). Biochar production of plant remains (pruning trees and straw) and studying its effect on the characteristics of calcareous soil and plant growth. Ph.D. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture Engineering, Urmia University, Iran (in Farsi)
Nabaei, S.M., Hassandokht, M.R., Abdossi, V. & Ardakani M.R. (2020.) Effects of biochar application under organic and chemical nutrition on yield, some morpho-physiological and nutritional traits of tomato cv. Ismir (Solanum lycopersicum Mill cv. Izmir). Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 51(1), 177-188. (in Farsi)
Naderi, R., Kermanshahi, M., Fattahi, M., & Khalighi, A. 2015. Evaluating features of cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum Mill.) progenies resulted from cross pollination. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 46 (4) 575-579. (in Farsi)
Omidvar Langroudi, L. (2004). Identification and design of a chemical slow release fertilizer. M.Sc. Thesis. Chemical Engineering. Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran, (in Farsi).
Pak, C. H., Kang, S. W. & Lee, C. W. (2004). Influence of water-soluble and slow-release fertilizers on growth of pot carnation in C-channel mat irrigation system. HortScience, 39(4), 770-770.‏
Peng, D., Gu, M., Zhao, Y., Yu, F. & Choi, H. (2018). Effects of biochar mixes with peat-moss based substrates on growth and development of horticultural crops. Horticultural Science and Technology, 36(4), 501-512.‏
Rostamzadeh, A., Golchin, A. & Mohammadi, C. (2013). Influence of different sources and amounts of nitrogen on nitrogen use efficiency and yield of green cucumber. Journal of Soil Science, 23 (1), 15-26.
Ryan, J., Estefan, G. & Rashid, A. (2007). Soil and plant analysis laboratory manual. Icarda Press, 244 pp.
Sharma, A. K. (2002). Biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture agrobios. 407pp. India.
Singh, B., Singh, B. P., & Cowie, A. L. (2010). Characterisation and evaluation of biochars for their application as a soil amendment. Soil Research, 48(7), 516-525.
Sohi, S., Krull, E., Lopez Capel, E. & Bol, R. (2010). A review of biochar and its use and function in soil. Advances in Agronomy, 105, 47-82.
Wei, Y., Li, L., Ma, L., Chen, B. & Zhang, M. (2011). Effect of medium and controlled release fertilizers ratio on plug seedling of Dahlia. Northen Horticulture, 23(2): 20(Abst).
Wellburn, A. R. (1994). The spectral determination of chlorophylls a and b, as well as total carotenoids, using various solvents with spectrophotometers of different resolution. Journal of Plant Physiology, 144, 307-31.
Woolf, D., Amonette, J.E., Street Perrott, F.A., Lehmann, J. & Joseph, S. (2010). Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change. Nature Communications, 1, 1-56.
Xiaowan, S., Du Jianjun, J. Z., Chenghe, H. & Hao, W. (2007). Progress in the application of slow/controlled release fertilizers. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin, 23(12), 234-238.‏
Zai-fan, H. U. A. N. G., Cheng-Shu, Z. H. E. N. G., Cui-hua, Z. H. A. N. G. & Ling-chao, F. A. N. (2009). Effects of controlled release fertilizer on available nutrient utilization rate and growth and ornamental quality of chrysanthemum. Shandong Agricultural Sciences, 22(10), 33-40.‏
Zhang, X., Peng, K., Wang, S. & Li, Z. (2009). Effect of slow-release fertilizer on the root system and photosynthesis of flue cured tobacco. Zhongguo Shengtai Nongye Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 17(3), 454-458.‏
Ziyaeyan, A., Niromand Jahromi, M. & Noushad, H. (2011). Sugar beet reaction to application of slow nitrogen fertilizers. Journal of Sugarbeet. 27 (1), 85-99. (in Farsi)