مقایسه کمی و کیفی رقم‎‌‎های هیبرید و آزاد گرده‌افشان پیاز روزکوتاه در شرایط اقلیمی خوزستان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار، بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان خوزستان، سازمان ‏تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

 به­منظور مقایسه کمی و کیفی رقم­های هیبرید و آزاد گرده‌افشان پیاز روزکوتاه در شرایط اقلیمی خوزستان این تحقیق به صورت طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی شامل 15رقم ( 10 رقم هیبربد و پنج رقم آزاد گرده‌افشان) با چهار تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی بهبهانبه­مدت دو سال زراعی (97-1395) اجرا شد. بذرها در اواسط مهر ماه در خزانه کشت و نشاها در اواسط آذرماه به زمین اصلی منتقل شدند. حداکثر عملکرد توسط رقم سیروس به­دست آمد، ولی کاهش عملکرد رقم­های هیبرید صبا و اس­وی 4043 و رقم­های آزاد­ گرده‌افشان تگزاس­ارلی­گرانو، تگزاس­ارلی­وایت و سپیدان نسبت به رقم سیروس معنی‌دار نبود. مقایسه گروهی صفات کمی و کیفی رقم‌های هیبرید و آزاد گرده‌افشان به روش تقسیم اثرات تیمار مشخص نمود، به استثنای درصد بولتینگ که در رقم­های آزاد گرده‌افشان به‌طور معنی‌داری از رقم‌های هیبرید بیشتر بود، از نظر سایر صفات تفاوت معنی‌داری بین رقم­های هیبرید و آزاد گرده‌افشان مشاهده نگردید. با عنایت به پایین­تر بودن قیمت بذر رقم­های آزاد گرده‌افشان، به­خصوص با توجه به افزایش قیمت ارز در سال­های اخیر و امکان تولید بذر رقم‌های آزاد گرده‌افشان توسط زارعین، برای تولید پیاز در استان خوزستان، کاشت رقم­های آزاد ­گرده‌افشان تگزاس­ارلی­گرانو، تگز­اس­ارلی­وایت و سپیدان توصیه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of open-pollinated and ‎hybrid short day onion cultivars in Khuzestan climatic conditions

نویسنده [English]

  • Abdulsattar Darabi
Associate Professor, Seed and Plant Research Improvement Department, Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research ‎and Education Center, AREEO, Ahwaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

This research was conducted to compare the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of open-pollinated and hybrid short day onion cultivars in Khuzestan climatic conditions. The experiment was done in randomized complete block deign including 15 cultivars (10 hybrid and 5 open-pollinated) with four replications at Behbahan Agriculture Research Station for two years (2016-18). Seeds were sown in nursery in early October and seedling transplanted in early November. Bulbs were harvested when 50-80% of foliage top had fallen and collapse. Siroos cultivar (hybrid) produced the highest yield. The decrease yield of Seba and SV 4043 (hybrid cultivars) as well as Texas Early White, Texas Early Grano, and Sapidan (open-pollinated cultivars) were not significant as compared with Siroos. Group comparison of the qualitative and quantitative characteristics in open-pollinated and hybrid cultivars was performed using partitioning of treatment effects. The bolted plants were significantly higher in open –pollinated than hybrid cultivars. But the differences of the other characteristic were not significant in open –pollinated and hybrid cultivars. The price of open –pollinated seed, especially due to increase price of foreign exchange in recent years, is much less than hybrid seed. In addition, seed of open pollinated cultivars could be produced by growers. Therefore, planting of open pollinated cultivars namely Texas Early White, Texas Early Grano, and Sapidan are recommended for onion production in Khuzestan province.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bolted plant
  • Bulbing
  • partitioning of treatment effects
  • yield
Aghora, T. & Pathak, C. S. (1991). Heterosis and combining ability in a line x tester cross of onions (Allium cepa L.). Vegetable Science (India), 18, 53-58.
Anonymus. (2018). Agricultural statistics, first volume-field crop, 2015-16. Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture, Programing and Economic Deputy, Statistics and Information Technology Office. pp. 117. (in Farsi)
Ashok, P., Sasikala, K. & Eterpal, N. (2013). Association among growth characters, yield and bulb quality in onion. Allium cepa L. International Journal of Farm Science, 3(1), 22-29.
Bosch-Serra, A. D. & Currah, L. (2002). Agronomy of onions pp. In H. D. Rabinowitch & L. Currah, (Eds.), Allium Crop Science: Recent Advances. (pp. 187–223) CAB International Wallingford, UK.
Brewster, J. L. (1990). Physiology of crop growth and bulbing. In: J. L. Brewster& H. D. Rabinowitch, (Eds.), Onions and Allid Crops. (pp. 53-58). Volume 1. CRC Press. Boca Raton. Florida.
Brewster, J. L. (2008). Onions and Other Vegetable Alliums. 2nd edition. CABI International, UK.
Bybordi, A., & Malakoti, M. J. (1999. The necessary of optimum application offertilizer to increase yield and quality and reduce nitrate concentration in onion bulb. Publications of Agricultural Education, Karaj. (in Farsi)
Cramer, C. (2003a).Comparison of open-pollinated and hybrid onion varieties for New Mexico. HortTecnology, 11, 119- 123.9.
Cramer, C. (2003b). Performance of fall-sown onion cultivars using for seeding dates. HortScience, 45, 1889-1892.
Darabi, A. (2010). Effects of selection and selfing on agricultural characteristics of progeny lines    from Behbahan landrace onion. Seed and Plant Improvement Journal, 26-1 (3), 383-396. (in Farsi).
Darabi, A. (2014). Effects of onion set transplanting date on physiological response, some vegetative characteristics and yield of onion genotypes in Behbahan region. Seed and Plant Production Journal, 30-2 (4), 457-471. (in Farsi)
Darabi, A. (2015a). Physiology and production of onion. Publication of Agricultural Education, Karaj. (in Farsi)
Darabi, A. (2015b). Evaluation of the effect of transplant and set methods on bulbing date and growth indices of onion genotypes. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 30- 2 (4), 457-471. (in Farsi).
Darabi, A. (2016b). Effects of transplanting date of onion set and transplant on earliness and some characteristics of onion populations in Khuzestan province. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 47  (1), 145-156. (in Farsi)
Darabi, A. (2016b). Effects of Planting date and planting density on bulbing date, yield and agronomic traits of improved population of Behbahan Onion. Seed and Plant, 32-2 (1), 1-20. (in Farsi).
Darabi, A. (2016c). The study of effect of planting date and density on marketable yield and bulb characteristics of an onion population from Behbahan. Journal of Crop Production and Processing, 5 (18), 301-314. (in Farsi)
Diaz-Perez, J. C., Purvis, A. C. & Paulk, J. T. (2003). Bolting, yield and bulb decay of sweet onion as affected by nitrogen and fertilization. HortScience, 128(1), 144-149.
Dowker, B. D. & Gordon, G.H. (1983). Heterosis and hybrid cultivars in onions. In: R. Frankel (Ed.), Monographs on theoretical and applied genetics (pp. 220-233). vol. 6. Heterosis, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Havey, M. J. (1993). Onion. Allium cepa L., In: G. Kalloo & B.O. Bergh (Eds.). Genetic improvement of vegetable crops. (pp. 35-49). Pergamon Press, Inc.,Terrytown, N.Y.
Jones, H. A. & Davis, G.N. (1944). Inbreeding and heterosis and their relation to the development of new varieties of onions. USDA Technology. Bulletine. 874.
Jones, H. A. & Emsweller. S. L. (1936). A male-sterile onion. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 34, 582-585.
Lancaster, J. E., Trigs C. M., De Ruiter, J. M. & Gander, P. W. (1996). Bulbing in onions: photoperiod and temperature requirements and prediction of bulb size and maturity. Annuals of Botany 78, 423-430.
Lee, J. H. Khan Robin, A. H., Natarajan, S., Jung H. J. & Nou, S. (2018). Varietal identification of open-pollinated onion cultivars using a nanofluidic array of single nucleotide olymorphism (SNP) markers. Agronomy, 8, 1-13.
Mosevizadeh, S. A. (2006). Evaluation the genetically variation of Iranian landraces of onion by using morphologica and physiological markers. PhD. Thesis. Tabriz University. Tabriz. (in Farsi)
Parkash, D., Singh, B. N. & Upadhyay, G. (2007). Antioxidant and free scavenging activities of phenols from onion (Allium cepa L.). Food Chemistry, 102(40), 1389-1393.
Perez, N. K., Market, N. K., Zekeli, S. & Zorb, C. (2018). Quality aspects in open- pollinated onion varieties from western. European Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality, 91, 69-78.
Pike, L. M. (1986). Onion breeding. In: M. Bassett (Ed.), (pp. 357-394). Breeding vegetable crops. AVI Press, Westport, Conn.
Shah Murad, S., Khalid Niaz, K., Ali, A. & Aslam, A. (2018). Ginger and onion: new and novel considerations. Pharmacy & Pharmacology International Journal, 6 (1) 200, 49-52.
Suh, J. K. & Ryu, Y. W. (2002). Short period test of growth, bulbing, leaf- fall down and regrowth of onion (Allium cepa L.) under different daylength controlled by supplemental lighting. Korean Society for Horticultural Science Journal,43 (5), 591-595.
Vajire, D., Thakare, K., Solunke, R., Panche, A. & Tiwari, A. (2017). The possibilities of the prediction of heterosis in elite lines of onion based on the assessment of genetic diversity. EC Microbiology, 10(5), 211-219.
Van der Meer, Q. P. (1994). Onion hybrids: Evaluation, prospects, limitations, and methods. Acta Horticulture, 358, 243-247.
Yazdi Samadi, B., Rezaei, A. & Valyzadeh, M. (2007). Statistical Design in Agricultural Research. Tehran University Publication. (in Farsi)