بررسی تنوع شیمیایی اسانس جمعیت‌های طبیعی آویشن شیرازی (‏Zataria multiflora Boiss.‎‏) در ‏استان هرمزگان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه هرمزگان، بندرعباس، ایران

2 استادیار، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه هرمزگان، بندرعباس، ایران

3 استادیار، دانشکده کشاورزی و محیط زیست، دانشگاه اراک، اراک، ایران

چکیده

آویشن شیرازی با نام علمی  Zataria multiflora Boiss.متعلق به تیره نعناع ((Lamiaceae بوده و از نظر پراکنش جغرافیایی بومی کشورهای ایران، افغانستان و پاکستان می­باشد. در این پژوهش، سرشاخه­های گلدار شش رویشگاه طبیعی در استان هرمزگان شامل رودخانه، لاورشیخ، فاریاب، تنگ زاغ، بشاگرد و بندر خمیر جمع­آوری گردید. پس از تایید صحت گونه، نمونه­ها در سایه و دمای محیط خشک و استخراج اسانس به روش تقطیر با آب توسط دستگاه طرح کلونجر انجام شد. سنجش اجزای شیمیایی اسانس به روش‌های گاز کروماتوگرافی (GC) و گاز کروماتوگرافی متصل به طیف­سنج جرمی ((GC/MS شناسایی گردید. نتایج نشان داد بیشترین و کمترین بازده اسانس به­ترتیب مربوط به اکوتیپ رودخانه (5/6 درصد) و اکوتیپ بندر خمیر (9/3 درصد) بود. بر این اساس 23 ترکیب که نماینده 3/99- 5/93 درصد از کل ترکیبات بود، شناسایی گردید. از میان این ترکیبات، تیمول، لینالول، کارواکرول و پاراسیمن ترکیبات اصلی این اکوتیپ­ها بودند. مونوترپن­های اکسیژن­دار (3/75-6/45 درصد) گروه اصلی سازنده ترکیبات در تمام نمونه­ها، به­جز فاریاب، را شامل می‌شد. تجزیه خوشه­ای ترکیبات شیمیایی، رویشگاه­های مورد مطالعه را در سه گروه قرار داد. گروه اول که توسط مقدار بالای کارواکرول مشخص شد شامل اکوتیپ­های بندر خمیر و بشاگرد، گروه دوم که حاوی مقدار بالای تیمول بود، شامل سه اکوتیپ­ تنگ زاغ، فاریاب و رودخانه و اکوتیپ­ لاورشیخ که گروه سوم را تشکیل می­داد توسط مقدار بالای لینالول مشخص شد. نتایج نشان داد جمعیت­های آویشن شیرازی در رویشگاه­های استان هرمزگان از درصد اسانس و تنوع فیتوشیمیایی بالایی برخوردار بوده و در برنامه­های اصلاحی می­تواند مورد استفاده قرار گیرند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of chemical diversity of essential oil of natural populations of Zataria multiflora Boiss. in Hormozgan province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Soolmaz Meamari 1
  • Alireza Yavari 2
  • Mahdi Bikdeloo 3
1 M.Sc. Student , Faculty of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture & Environment, University of Arak, Arak, Iran
چکیده [English]

Zataria multiflora Boiss. belongs to Lamiaceae family, which grows wildly in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. In the present study, the aerial parts of this plant were collected at full flowering stage from six habitats in Hormozgan province including Roudkhane, Lavar-shaikh, Faryab, Tang-e-Zagh, Bashagard and Bandar-e-Khamir. After confirmation of scientific names of the species, the plant materials were dried at shade and at room temperature and the essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation. The essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS techniques. Results showed that maximum and minimum essential oil contents (w/w%) obtained from Roudkhaneh (6.5%) and Bandar-e-khamir (3.9%) ecotypes, respectively. According to essential oil compound analysis, twenty-three components, representing 93.5 – 99.3% of the total components, were identified. Thymol, linalool, carvacrol and p-cymene were the major compounds in the studied ecotypes. Oxygenated monoterpens were the main group of constituents in all samples except Faryab (45.6-75.3%). Cluster analysis of chemical compounds divided the studied ecotypes into three groups. The first group, which was characterized by a high amount of carvacrol, included the ecotypes of Bandar-e-khamir and Bashagard; the second group, which contained a high amount of thymol, included three ecotypes of Tang-e-zagh, Faryab and Roudkhane, and the ecotype of Lavar-shaikh, which formed the third group, had the highest amount of linalool. The results showed that Z. multiflora ecotypes in the habitats of Hormozgan province have a high percentage of essential oil and phytochemical diversity and can be used in breeding programs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Carvacrol essential oil
  • Natural habitat
  • Thymol
  • Zataria multiflora
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