ارزیابی مورفولوژیک و شناسایی ژنوتیپ‌های برتر گردو (‏Juglans regia L.‎‏) ‏در شمال استان همدان، ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 استاد، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 استادیار، پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران، پاکدشت، ایران

10.22059/ijhs.2019.277210.1609

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف ارزیابی تنوع فنولوژیک، مورفولوژیک و پومولوژیک ژنوتیپ­های گردو در شمال استان همدان، طی سال­های باغی 96-1395 انجام شد. بدین منظور، تعداد 84 ژنوتیپ انتخاب و براساس دو توصیف­نامه IPGRI و UPOVمورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند، که پس از دو سال ارزیابی تعداد 12 ژنوتیپ به‌عنوان ژنوتیپ برتر انتخاب گردید. نتایج به‌دست‌آمده از مطالعات فنولوژیک نشان داد که ژنوتیپ HaRaToMa23، با 23 روز تاخیر برگدهی نسبت به ژنوتیپ استاندارد مرجع، دیربرگده­ترین ژنوتیپ بود. به­علاوه سه ژنوتیپ HaRaSuSh1، HaRaToMa24 و HaRaVaAh17 هموگام بودند. براساس مطالعات پومولوژیک وزن دانه، مغز و درصد مغز در ژنوتیپ­های برتر به ترتیب از 60/95-22/12 گرم، 56/11-82/6 گرم و 47/59-15/47 درصد متغیر بود، کم­ترین میزان ضخامت پوست سخت (77/0 میلی­متر) در بین ژنوتیپ­های برتر شناسایی‌شده مربوط به ژنوتیپ HaRaVaAh9 بود و ژنوتیپ HaRaSuSh1 دارای بیش­ترین میزان وزن دانه و مغز و ژنوتیپ HaRaSuSh2 دارای بیشترین درصد مغز بود. ژنوتیپ­های برتر انتخابی دارای عادت باردهی جانبی بودند که رنگ مغز دانه آن­ها از روشن تا بسیار روشن متغیر بود که به راحتی از پوست سخت قابل تشخیص بود. براساس نتایج به‌دست‌آمده، همبستگی مثبت و معنی­داری (**96/0=r) در سطح احتمال یک درصد بین صفات تاریخ برگدهی و تاریخ برداشت، عملکرد درخت با وزن دانه (** 63/0=r) و درصد باردهی جانبی (**73/0=r) در سطح احتمال یک درصد مشاهده گردید. به­طور کلی و براساس نتایج به‌دست‌آمده، ژنوتیپ­های برتر انتخابی از نظر بسیاری از صفات مهم اصلاحی نسبت به ارقام تجاری برتر بودند که می­تواند در برنامه­های اصلاحی در راستای معرفی رقم های جدید استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Morphological evaluation and identification of walnut (Juglans regia L.) superior ‎genotypes in north Hamadan province of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Rezaei 1
  • Kazem Arzani 2
  • Saadat Sarikhani 3
1 Former M.Sc. Student, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

The current research was conducted to evaluate the phenological, morphological and pomological diversity of some selected walnut genotypes in the north of Hamadan province during 2016-2017 growing seasons. For this purpose, 84 mature walnut genotypes were selected and evaluated based on the IPGRI and UPOV descriptors. After two years of evaluation, 12 genotypes were selected as the superior genotype. The results showed that HaRaToMa23 genotype is a late-leafing genotype with 23 days delay in compare with the reference standard genotype. In addition, three genotypes including HaRaSuSh1, HaRaToMa24 and HaRaVaAh17 were homogeneous.In term of pomological studies, nut and kernel weights and kernel percentages of superior genotypes varied from 12.95-22.60 g, 6.82-11.56 g and 47.15-59.47 %, respectively. The lowest shell thickness (0.77 mm) was among the superior genotypes above for HaRaVaAh9 genotype. Also, HaRaSuSh1 genotype had the highest nut and kernel weight and HaRaSuSh2genotype showed the highest kernel percentage. The selected superior genotypes had a lateral bearing habit and their kernel color varied from bright to very bright that was easily distinguished from the hard skin. Based on the results, a positive and significant correlation (r = 0.96 **) was observed between leafing date and harvesting date, tree yield and nut weight (r = 0.63 **) and lateral bearing rate (r = 0.73 **) at a probability level of 1%. Selected superior genotypes in terms of many important breeding traits showed superiority in compare with commercial cultivars, so these selected genotypes can be used in breeding programs to introduce new cultivars.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Genetic diversity
  • genotype
  • Persian walnut
  • pomological traits
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