مطالعه کارایی قارچ‌های میکوریز آربوسکولار بر بهبود برخی شاخص‌های رشد پایه ریز‌ازدیادی گلابی ‏‏(پیرودوارف) تحت تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی عصر(عج) رفسنجان، ایران

2 دانشیار، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ولی عصر(عج) رفسنجان، ایران ‏

3 دانشیار مرکز تحقیقات سلامت پسته، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی رفسنجان، ایران، کد پستی: 7717735979‏

4 استادیار، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی عصر(عج) رفسنجان، ایران

5 استاد، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی عصر(عج) رفسنجان، ایران

چکیده

یکی از مشکلات مهم در مورد تولید تجاری گیاهان ریز‌ازدیادی، بقای کم و رشد ضعیف بعد از مرحله انتقال می‌باشد. به‌منظور مطالعه تأثیر همزیستی قارچ‌های میکوریز بر استقرار، بقا، جنبه‌های مختلف رشد و همچنین میزان جذب عناصر غذایی نهال‌های گلابی حاصل از ریز‌ازدیادی پایه پیرودوارف در شرایط تنش خشکی، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با دو فاکتور شامل میکوریز در دو سطح (با میکوریز و بدون میکوریز) و تنش خشکی در سه سطح (دور آبیاری سه، پنج و هفت روز یک بار) در سه تکرار در شرایط گلخانه‌ای اجرا شد. دو ماه پس از اعمال تنش خشکی، گیاهان برداشت شدند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد همزیستی میکوریزی موجب افزایش معنی‌دار شاخص‌های رویشی در تمامی سطوح تنش خشکی شد. به‌طوری که سطح برگ کل، ارتفاع ساقه، وزن تر کل برگ و وزن خشک ریشه نهال‌های میکوریزایی در مقایسه با شاهد به‌ترتیب 6/3، 3/1، 1/3 و 9/1 برابر افزایش نشان دادند. همچنین میزان عناصر فسفر، منگنز، مس، روی و پتاسیم اندام‌های هوایی و ریشه در تیمار‌های میکوریزایی نسبت به تیمار‌های شاهد (بدون میکوریز) افزایش معنی‌داری داشتند. در مجموع نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد نهال‌های گلابی حاصل از کشت بافت مایه‌زنی شده با قارچ‌های میکوریز آربوسکولار علاوه بر سازگاری و رشد بهتر، محتوی بالاتر عناصر غذایی، تحمل بیشتری به تنش خشکی داشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

‎ Study of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi performance on some growth indices ‎improvement of micro-propagated pear rootstock (Pyrodwarf) under drought stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Khatereh Shirinzadeh 1
  • Ebrahim Sedaghati 2 3
  • Ali Akbar Mohammadi Mirik 4
  • Hamid Reza Karimi 5
1 M.Sc. Student, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran‎
3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran‎
4 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran
5 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

One of the major problems with commercial production of micro-propagated plants is low survival and poor growth after transplanting. In order to investigation the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on establishment, survival, growth, as well as nutrients absorption on Pyrodwarf micropropagated rootstock in drought stress conditions, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with two factors including mycorrhizae in two levels (with and without) and drought stress in three levels (three, five and seven days irrigation intervals) in three replications in greenhouse conditions. The plants harvested two months after drought stress. The results of variance analysis showed that mycorrhizal symbiosis significantly increased vegetative indices at all levels of drought stress. The total leaf area, stem height, total leaf fresh weight and root dry weight of mycorrhizal seedlings were 3.6, 1.3, 3.1 and 1.9 times higher than non-mycorrhizal plants, respectively. The content of P, Mn, Cu, Zn and K and in root and shoot tissues increased significantly in mycorrhizal treatments than control. Generally, the results of this study showed that pear seedlings treated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi had better acclimatization, growth and more tolerance at normal and drought stress condition.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • abiotic stress
  • Acclimatization
  • Pear
  • Symbiosis
  • Tissue culture
An, Z.Q., Hendrix, J. W., Hershman, D. E. & Henson, G. T. (1990). Evaluation of the "most probable number" (MPN) and wet-sieving methods for determining soil-borne populations of  endogonaceous mycorrhizal fungi. Mycologia, 82, 576-581.
Abbaspour, H., Saeidi-Sar, S., Afshari, H. & Abdel-Wahhab, M. (2012). Tolerance of mycorrhiza infected pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) seedling to drought stress under glasshouse conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology, 169, 704-709.
Abdollahi, H. (2010). Pear (Botany, Cultivars and Rootstocks). Karaj, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Agricultural Education Publication, pp. 92. (in Farsi)
Aghababaei, F. & Raiesi, F. (2009). Endomycorrhizal symbiosis formation in some commercial almond genotypes. Iranin Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, 10, 127-140. (In Farsi)
Ahmed, M., Anjum, M. A., Shah, A. H. & Hamid, A. (2010). In vitro preservation of Pyrus germplasm with minimal growth using different temperature regimes. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 42, 1639-1650.
Alizadeh, O. & Alizadeh, A. (2007). The Effect of mycorrhizal fungi on maize nutrients absorption in different soil moisture conditions. Journal of Research in Agricultural Sciences, 3, 101-108. (In Farsi)
Alizadeh Zarmehri, F. Davarinezhad, G.H. Khorasani, R. Nemati, S.H. & Keshavarz, P. (2017). The effect of vegetative and seedling pear rootstocks on vegetative characteristics and water potential of pear cultivars. Journal of Horticulture Science (Agricultural Science and Technology), 31, 705-721. (in Farsi)
Al-Karaki, G. & Al-Raddad, A. (1997). Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and drought stress on growth and nutrient uptake of two wheat genotypes differing in drought resistance. Mycorrhiza, 7, 83-88.
Allen, M. F., Moore Jr, T. S. & Christensen, M. (1982). Phytohormone changes in Bouteloua gracilis infected by vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizae. II. Altered levels of gibberellin-like substances and abscisic acid in the host plant. Canadian Journal of Botany, 60, 468-471.
Anisha, P. (2009). Studies on inducing variability in vitro and use of mycorrhizae in hardening of gerbera. Master of Science ْhesis. UAS, Dharwad.
Auge, R. M. (2001). Water relations, drought and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Mycorrhiza, 11, 3-42.
Awotoye, O., Adewole, M., Salami, A. & Ohiembor, M. (2009). Arbuscular mycorrhiza contribution to the growth performance and heavy metal uptake of Helianthus annuus Linn in pot culture. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 3, 157-163.
Bahraminezhad, M. Sedaghati, E. Shamshiri, M. H. & Alaei, H. (2015). Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on growth and somephysiological and eco-physiological properties of two rootstocks ofalmond (GF677 and Shurab 2) under drought stress. Iranin Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, 16, 409-424. (In Farsi)
Calvet, C., Pinochet, J., Hernández-Dorrego, A., Estaún, V. & Camprubí, A. (2001). Field microplot performance of the peach-almond hybrid GF-677 after inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a replant soil infested with root-knot nematodes. Mycorrhiza, 10, 295-300.
Chapman, B., Jones, D. & Jung, R. (1983). Processes controlling metal ion attenuation in acid mine drainage streams. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 47, 1957-1973.
Cruz, R. E. D. & Husain, T. (2008). Effect of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) fungi inoculation on coppicing ability and drought resistance of Senna spectabilis. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 40, 2217-2224.
Darang, S. Hamidoghli, Y. & Ramazani Sayad, A. (2011). Effects of plant growth regulators in in vitro propagation of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica). Master of Science Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Gilan University. (in Farsi)
Darroudi, H., Safarnezhad, A., Akbarinia, M., Hosseini, S.M. & Hajian Shahri, M. (2016). Effects of mycorrhizal fungi and Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria on the growth and survival of Ribes khorasanicum Saghafi and Assadi tissue culture plantlets. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 24, 116-127. (in Farsi)
Ebrahimi, F. Bagherieh Najar, M. B. Iranbakhsh, A. & Aghdasi, M. (2011). Optimization of chickpea (Cicer arientinum) tissue culture. Master of Science Thesis, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Golestan University. (in Farsi)
Emami, A. (1996). Methods of plant analysis. Technical handbook, Soil and Water Research Institute. Tehran University Press, No. 982. (in Farsi)
Fan, Y., Luan, Y., An, L. & Yu, K. (2008). Arbuscular mycorrhizae formed by Penicillium pinophilum improve the growth, nutrient uptake and photosynthesis of strawberry with two inoculum-types. Biotechnology Letters, 30, 1489-1494.
Germana, C. (1996). Experiences on the response of almond plants (Amygdalus communis L.) to water stress. II International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops, 449, 497-504.
Giovannetti, M. & Mosse, B. (1980). An evaluation of techniques for measuring vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizainfection in roots. New Phytologist, 84, 489-500.
Hamel, C. & Smith, D. L. (1991). Interspecific N-transfer and Plant development in a mycorrhizal field-grown mixture. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 23, 661-665.
Hoagland, D.R., & Arnon, D.I. (1950). The water-culture method for growing for plants without soil. Circular. California Agricultural Experiment Station, 347, 1-32.
Hazarika, B. N. (2003). Acclimatization of tissue-cultured plants. Current Science, 85, 1704-1712.
Hu, Y. & Schmidhalter, U. (2005). Drought and salinity: A comparison of their effects on mineral nutrition of plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 168, 541-549.
Irigoyen, J., Einerich, D. & Sánchez‐Díaz, M. (1992). Water stress induced changes in concentrations of proline and total soluble sugars in nodulated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants. Physiologia Plantarum, 84, 55-60.
Jacob, H. (2000). New pear rootstocks from Geisenheim, Germany. VIII International Symposium on Pear, 596, 337-344.
James, B., Rodel, D., Lorettu, U., Reynaldo, E. & Tariq, H. (2008). Effect of vesicular arboscular mycorrhiza (VAM) fungi inoculation on coppicing ability and drought resistance of Senna spectabilis. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 40, 2217-2224.
Kafkas, S. & Ortas, I. (2009). Various mycorrhizal fungi enhance dry weights, P and Zn uptake of four Pistacia species. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 32, 146-159.
Khan, A. G. (2005). Role of soil microbes in the rhizospheres of plants growing on trace metal contaminated soils in phytoremediation. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 18, 355-364.
Lindsay, W.L., & Norvell, W.A. (1978). Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 42, 241-428.
López-Bucio, J., Cruz-Ramırez, A. & Herrera-Estrella, L. (2003). The role of nutrient availability in regulating root architecture. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 6, 280-287.
Marschner, H. & Dell, B. (1994). Nutrient uptake in mycorrhizal symbiosis. Plant and Soil, 159, 89-102.
Miyasaka, S. C., Habte, M., Friday, J. & Johnson, E. (2003). Manual on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus production and inoculation techniques. Soil and Crop Management, Honolulu, United States Department of Agriculture, University of Hawaii.
Mohammadi, Z.H. Naseri, L. & Barin, M. (2016). The effect of cultivation substrates and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiotic on establishment and growth of micro-propagated apple rootstocks (MM106).Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 47, 287-296. (in Farsi)
Morone-Fortunato, I. & Avato, P. (2008). Plant development and synthesis of essential oils in micropropagated and mycorrhiza inoculated plants of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Link) Ietswaart. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 93, 139-149.
Murashige, T. & Skoog, F. (1962). A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiologia Plantarum, 15, 473-497.
Nadian, H. (2011). Effect of drought stress and mycorrhizal symbiosis on plant growth and P uptake by two sorghum genotypes differing in root morphology. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Soil and Water Sciences, 15, 112- 121. (in Farsi)
Ojha, S., Chakraborty, M., Dutta, S. & Chatterjee, N. (2008). Influence of VAM on nutrient uptake and growth of custard-apple. Asian Journal of Experimental Sciences, 22, 221-224.
Olsen, S. R. (1954). Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington.
Phillips, J. M. & Hayman, D. (1970). Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 55, 158-161.
Perez-Perez, J. M. (2007). Hormone signalling and root development: an update on the latest Arabidopsis thaliana research. Functional Plant Biology, 34, 163-171.
Qiang-Sheng Wu & Ren-Xue Xia, (2006).Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influence growth, osmotic adjustment and photosynthesis of citrus under well-watered and water stress conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology, 163, 417-425.
Raiesi, F. & Ghollarata, M. (2006). Interactions between phosphorus availability and an AM fungus (Glomus intraradices) and their effects on soil microbial respiration, biomass and enzyme activities in a calcareous soil. Pedobiologia, 50, 413-425.
Read, D., Leake, J. & Langdale, A. (1989). The nitrogen nutrition of mycorrhizal fungi and their host plants. Nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur utilization by fungi, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, pp.181-204.
Rutto, K. L. & Mizutani, F. (2006). Effect of mycorrhizal inoculation and activated charcoal on growth and nutrition in peach (Prunus persica Batsch) seedlings treated with peach root-bark extracts. Journal of Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 75, 463-468.
Sajedi, N. & Rejali, F. (2011). Effect of drought stress, zinc application and mycorrhizal inoculation on the absorption of low-energy elements in corn. Journal of Soil Research (Soil and Water Sciences), 25, 83-92. (in Farsi)
Schultz, C. (2001). Effect of (vesicular-) arbuscular mycorrhiza on survival and post vitro development of micropropagated oil palms (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Niedersächsische Staats-und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen.
Shiranirad, A. H. Alizadeh, A. & Hashemi Dezfooli, S. A. (2000). The study of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, phosphorus and drought stress on nutrient uptake efficiency in wheat. Journal ofSeedling and Seed, 16, 327-349. (in Farsi)
Singh, N. V., Singh, S. K., Singh, A. K., Meshram, D. T., Suroshe, S. S. & Mishra, D. C. (2012). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) induced hardening of micropropagated pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) plantlets. Scientia Horticulturae, 136, 122-127.
Smith, S. E. & Read, D. J. (2008). Mycorrhizal symbiosis. Third edition, Academic Press, pp. 800.
Tadayyon, A. & Soltanian, M. (2016). Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on growth, root colonization rate and linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) P absorption under different levels of dehydration. Journal of Plant Process and Function, 5, 147-157. (in Farsi)
Tarafdar, J. & Marschner, H. (1995). Dual inoculation with Aspergillus fumigatus and Glomus mosseae enhances biomass production and nutrient uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) supplied with organic phosphorus as Na-phytate. Plant and Soil, 173, 97-102.
Thomas, F. M. & Gausling, T. (2000). Morphological and physiological responses of oak seedlings (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) to moderate drought. Annals of Forest Science, 57, 325-333.
Van Schilfgaarde, J. (1994). Irrigation-a blessing or a curse. Agricultural Water Management, 25, 203-219.
Viseur, J. (1987). Micropropagation of pear, Pyrus communis L., in a double-phase culture medium. Symposium on In Vitro Problems Related to Mass Propagation of Horticultural Plants,212, 117-124.
 Wu, Q.-S. & Xia, R.-X. (2006). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influence growth, osmotic adjustment and photosynthesis of citrus under well-watered and water stress conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology, 163, 417-425.
 Wu, Q.-S., Xia, R.-X. & Zou, Y.-N. (2006). Reactive oxygen metabolism in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal citrus (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings subjected to water stress. Journal of Plant Physiology, 163, 1101-1110.
57. Yao, Q., Zhu, H. & Chen, J. (2005). Growth responses and endogenous IAA and iPAs changes of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) seedlings induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculation. Scientia Horticulturae, 105, 145-151.
Zarei, M., Paymaneh, Z. & Ronaghi, A. (2016). The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and water stress on some antioxidant enzymes activities and nutrients uptake of two citrus rootstocks. Iran Agricultural Research, 35, 19-26. (in Farsi)
 Zarrinbal, M. (2016). Pome fruits rootstocks (Apple, Pear, Quince). East Azarbaijan Jahad-e-Agricultural Organization, Agricultural Promotion Coordination Management, Didactic media office, First edition, No. 163. (in Farsi)