ارزیابی پاسخ به تنش کم‌آبی برخی کلون‌های انتخابی چای (‏Camellia sinensis L.‎‏) بر پایه ‏خصوصیات رشدی

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، پژوهشکده چای، مؤسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج ‏کشاورزی، لاهیجان، ایران

2 محقق، پژوهشکده چای، مؤسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ‏لاهیجان، ایران

3 مربی پژوهشی، پژوهشکده چای، مؤسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، لاهیجان، ایران

4 استادیار، گروه بیوتکنولوژی، پژوهشکده علوم محیطی، پژوهشگاه علوم و تکنولوژی پیشرفته و علوم محیطی، دانشگاه تحصیلات ‏تکمیلی صنعتی و فناوری پیشرفته، کرمان، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور ارزیابی تحمل به تنش کم­آبی نه کلون انتخابی چای (Camellia sinensis L.)، آزمایشی در کلکسیون چای ایستگاه تحقیقات چای شهید افتخاری فشالم واقع در شهرستان شفت، به­صورت کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. در کلون­های انتخابی به­عنوان کرت اصلی در نه سطح و تیمارهای آبیاری به­عنوان کرت فرعی در دو سطح (آبیاری کامل و بدون آبیاری) در نظر گرفته شدند. مدت 60 روز بعد از شروع تنش آبی، شاخص تنش آبی، محتوی نسبی آب برگ و صفات کمّی شامل تعداد شاخساره، وزن­تر و خشک شاخساره، رشد طولی شاخساره، طول و عرض برگ پنجم و عملکرد برگ سبز در شرایط تنش آبی و بدون تنش برای غربال­گری کلون­های چای اندازه­گیری شد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس، نشان­دهنده وجود تفاوت معنی­دار بین کلون­ها، تیمارهای آبیاری و اثر متقابل کلون وتیمارهای آبیاری برای کلیه صفات اندازه­گیری شده بود. با اعمال تنش آبی، محتوی نسبی آب برگ، عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و سایر خصوصیات رشدی کلون­ها کاهش یافت، به­طوری که بیشترین درصد کاهش متعلق به عملکرد برگ سبز بود. نتایج حاصل از محاسبه شاخص تنش آب و درصد تغییرپذیری صفات مذکور نشان داد کلون 276 و کلون امید بخش 100 با دارا بودن بالاترین شاخص تنش آب و کمترین درصد تغییرپذیری صفات کمّی، پتانسیل بالاتری از نظر تحمل شرایط تنش کم­آبی نسبت به سایر کلون­ها داشت و می­توان آنها را به­عنوان کلون­های متحمل برای انجام برنامه­های به­نژادی چای در نظر گرفت. همچنین با توجه به پایین‌بودن شاخص تنش آب و بالابودن درصد تغییر صفات کمّی، کلون­های 399 و 278 را می­توان به­عنوان کلون­های حساس به تنش کم­آبی معرفی نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of response to water-deficit stress in some selected tea ‎ ‎(Camellia sinensis L.) clones based on growth characteristics ‎

نویسندگان [English]

  • sanam safaei chaeikar 1
  • Koorosh Falakro 2
  • Kourosh Majd Salimi 3
  • Behrooz Alinaghipour 2
  • Mehdi Rahimi 4
1 Assistant Professor, Tea Research center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural ‎Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Lahijan, Iran ‎
2 Researcher, Tea Research center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and ‎Extension Organization (AREEO), Lahijan, Iran ‎
3 Instructor, Tea Research center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension ‎Organization (AREEO), Lahijan, Iran ‎
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, ‎Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate water deficient tolerance of nine selected tea clones, an experiment was performed in tea collections, Shahid Eftekhari Fashalam Tea Research Station in Shaft. The experiment was conducted as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Clones were considered as main plot in nine levels and irrigation treatments were as sub plot in two levels (irrigation and non-irrigation). Sixty days after the onset of water stress, water stress index, relative water content and quantitative traits included number of shoots, fresh and dry weight of shoot, length of shoot, length and width of 5th leaf and green leaf yield were evaluated in two stress and non-stress conditions for screening of tea clones. The results of variance analysis showed significant differences between clones, irrigation treatments and clone×irrigation interaction for all measured traits. Under water stress, relative water content, yield, yield components and other growth characteristics of clones decreased, so that the highest decrease belongs to green leaf yield. The results of water stress index and changing percent of measured traits showed that the clones of 276 and 100 promising clone with the highest water stress and the lowest changing percent of quantitative traits, have the higher potential to tolerate water deficit stress conditions compared with other clones and useful for tea breeding programs as tolerate clones, also because of the low water stress index and high changing percent of quantitative traits of clones 399 and 278, can be introduced them as susceptible to water deficit stress.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Screening of clones
  • tea plant irrigation
  • tolerate clone to water stress
  • tea yield
  • water stress index‎
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