تأثیر تنش خشکی و قارچ‌های میکوریزا بر صفات فیزیولوژیک و درصد اسانس مرزه سهندی (‏Satureja sahendica Bornm.‎‏)‏

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی و صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، تهران، ایران

2 استاد، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

4 استادیار، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی و صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مرزه سهندی یکی از گیاهان دارویی انحصاری ایران است که علاوه بر کاربرد در صنایع دارویی، غذایی، آرایشی و بهداشتی، به دلیل تحمل بالا به تنش خشکی و قابلیت تولید در مناطق دیم از اهمیت زراعی بالایی برخوردار می‌باشد. به منظور بررسی تغییرات صفات فیزیولوژیک مرزه سهندی، این تحقیق در دو سال در شرایط مزرعه در قالب کرت های خرد شده در سه تکرار اجرا شد. تنش خشکی به عنوان کرت اصلی در چهار سطح (آبیاری کامل و قطع آبیاری در مراحل ساقه‌دهی، غنچه‌دهی و 50% گلدهی) و تلقیح با قارچ مایکوریزا به عنوان کرت فرعی در چهار سطح (Glomus intraradices، G. mosseae، G. mosseae + G.intraradices و عدم استفاده از کود زیستی) در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد اثر متقابل سال×تنش×میکوریزا در سطح 1 درصد بر دو آنزیم پراکسیداز و پلی‌فنل‌اکسیداز و نیز درصد اسانس معنی‌دار بود. مقایسه میانگین‌ها نشان داد کاتالاز، سوپراکسیددیسموتاز، پراکسیداز و فنل کل در سال دوم بیشترین بودند. بیشترین مقدار کلروفیل b، کلروفیل کل، مالون‌دی آلدهید و قند محلول در تنش خشکی در مرحله ساقه‌دهی به‌دست آمد. بیشترین سوپراکسیددیسموتاز و پرولین متعلق به تنش خشکی 50 درصد در زمان گلدهی بود. بیشترین درصد اسانس ) 87/1 درصد( در تیمار مصرف هر دو گونه میکوریزا به دست آمد. بنابراین استفاده از کودهای زیستی می تواند اثرات تنش خشکی را کاهش داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of drought stress and mycorrhizal fungi on physiological traits and essential ‎oil percentage of Satureja sahandica Bornm.‎

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Zakerian 1
  • Fatemeh Sefidkon 2
  • Bohloul Abbaszadeh 3
  • Sepideh Kalate-Jari 4
1 Ph. D. Candidate, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research Education and Extension ‎Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization ‎‎(AREEO), Tehran, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Satureja sahandica is one of the endemic Iranian medicinal plants which, has application in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and sanitary industries and has high agricultural importance due to its high tolerance to drought stress and production capacity in rainfed areas. In order to investigate the changes in the physiological traits of Satureja sahandica, this research was carried out in two years under field conditions with split plot design in three replications. Drought stress considered as main slot at four levels (full irrigation and interupted irrigation at shoot, budding and 50% flowering stages) and inoculation with mycorhiza as sub plot  at four levels ( non-use of bio fertilizer (control), Glomus intraradices, Glomus mosseae, and Glomus mosseae + Glomus intraradices). The results showed iteraction effect of year * drought stress * mycorrhiza at 1% level on peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase and percentage of essential oil was significant. Mean comparison of traits showed that catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and total phenol were the highest in the second year. The highest amount of chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, malondialdehyde, soluble sugar was obtained in drought stress at stem elongation. The highest superoxide dismutase, proline, and total phenol belonged todrought stress at 50% flowering. The highest percentage of essential oil (1.87%) obtained in use of both species of mycorrhiza. So using bio fertilizers can reduced effects of drought stress.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant Enzymes
  • Essential oil percentage
  • proline
  • Satureja sahandica
  • Soluble sugar
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