اثر کم‌آبیاری تنظیم‌شده بر عملکرد و کیفیت روغن زیتون (‏Olea europea L.‎‏)‏‎ ‎رقم ʼزردʻ ‏

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 استاد، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

3 دانشیار، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

چکیده

در­این پژوهش، اثر کم­آبیاری تنظیم­شده از زمان تشکیل میوه تا رسیدن میوه زیتون بررسی شد. تیمارها شامل تیمار شاهد (تأمین100% تبخیر ­و­ تعرق گیاه)، کم­آبیاری تنظیم­شده­ی نوع یک (تأمین 100% نیاز آبی از مرحله تشکیل میوه ­نهایی تا آغاز رسیدن و 50% نیاز آبی پس از ­آن تا برداشت)، نوع دو (تأمین100% نیاز آبی از مرحله تشکیل میوه ­نهایی تا سخت­شدن هسته و 50% نیاز آبی بعد از ­آن تا برداشت)، نوع سه (تأمین 50% نیاز آبی در مرحله سخت­شدن هسته و 100% نیاز آبی در سایر مراحل رشد میوه) و دیم بودند. ارزیابی لازم در زمینه عملکرد میوه، روغن و خصوصیات کیفی روغن انجام گردید. نتایج نشان داد بالاترین عملکرد میوه (41/30 کیلوگرم ­در ­­درخت) و روغن زیتون (86/5 کیلوگرم ­در وزن­خشک)، کمترین ارزش پراکسید (33/8 میلی­اکی­والانت اکسیژن ­در کیلوگرم روغن­زیتون) و K270 (163/0) و همچنین بالاترین کارایی مصرف آب برای تولید میوه و روغن (به­ترتیب 10/24 و 64/4 کیلوگرم بر ­مترمکعب) در کم­آبیاری نوع سه مشاهده شد. کمترین عملکرد میوه (96/8 کیلوگرم در­­ درخت) و روغن (18/1 کیلوگرم در وزن­خشک) و بالاترین عدد پراکسید (23 میلی­اکی­والانت اکسیژن در کیلوگرم روغن ­زیتون) را تیمار دیم نشان داد. در ­مجموع، تیمار کم­آبیاری تنظیم‌شده در مرحله سخت­شدن هسته بدون کاهش عملکرد میوه، کیفیت و عملکرد روغن نسبت به تیمار شاهد کارایی مصرف آب را نیز افزایش داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of deficit irrigation during growth and development of fruit on yield and ‎quality of olive cv. Zard

نویسندگان [English]

  • Roya Nezamivand Chegini 1
  • Mahmood Ghasemnezhad 2
  • Mohammad Hassan Biglouei 3
1 Former M.Sc.Student, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Rasht, ‎Iran
2 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

In this study, effect of deficit irrigation from olive fruit set to ripening stage was investigated. Treatments were control (100ETc), the first one regulated deficit irrigation (RDI1); 100% ETc from fruit set to beginning of fruit ripening and 50% ETc after that to harvesting, the second one regulated deficit irrigation (RDI2); 100% ETc from fruit set to pit hardening and 50% ETc thereafter to harvest, the third one (RDI3); 100% ETc during fruit set to the pit hardening and the beginning of ripening to harvest and 50% ETc at pit hardening, and no irrigation (rainfed). Fruit and oil yield and oil quality characteristics were evaluated. Results showed that the highest yield of fruit (30.41 kg per tree) and olive oil (5.86 kg in dry weight), the least peroxide value (8.33 meq O2/kg) andK270 (0.164), alsothe highest water use efficiency for fruit and oil production (24.24 and 64.4 kg/m3 , respectively) were in RDI3. The least yield of fruit (8.96 kg per tree) and oil (18.1 kg dry weight) and the highest peroxide value (23 meq O2/kg) was observed in rainfed. Overall, results showed that RDI during fruit pit hardening could increase water use efficiency, whitout reducing fruit yield, quality and oil percentage.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Acidity
  • peroxide value
  • pit hardening
  • Water Productivity
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