مقایسه عناصر غذایی و ترکیبات شیمیایی گیاه دارویی- خوراکی بن‌سرخ در رویشگاه و مزرعه ‏

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان لرستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش ‏و ترویج کشاورزی، خرم‌آباد، ایران

2 دکتری مرتع، باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان، واحد یاسوج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، یاسوج، ایران

چکیده

بن‌سرخ (Allium jesdianum) از گیاهان دارویی-خوراکی مهم و در معرض خطر است که در ارتفاعات رشته کوه­های زاگرس، ایران می‌روید. در این مطالعه پیازهای سه اکوتیپ از گیاه دارویی بن‌سرخ؛ شامل اکوتیپ‌های کاکارضا در شهرستان خرم‌آباد، ذلقی در شهرستان الیگودرز و مله در شهرستان پلدختر، که در شرایط جغرافیایی و اقلیمی­ متفاوت در استان لرستان رویش می یابند، جمع‌آوری شدند. پیازهای جمع­آوری شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار در مزرعه کشت شدند. در بهار سال بعد از نمونه­های گیاهی کشت شده در مزرعه و نیز رویشگاه‌های طبیعی نمونه‌گیری شد. برای تعیین خصوصیات خاک، نمونۀ خاک از عمق 30-0 سانتی­متری در هر یک از رویشگاه­ها و مزرعه، با سه تکرار برداشت شد. صفات مورد مطالعه عبارت بودند از خصوصیات کمی و کیفی اسانس، فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی،  پروتئین کل، ویتامین C، قندهای غیرساختمانی و عناصر غذایی شامل نیتروژن، ﭘﺘﺎﺳﻴﻢ، فسفر، آهن، منگنز، مس و روی. نتایج نشان داد که ترکیبات Dimethyl Trisulfide، Dipropyl trisulfide، Di-2-propenyl tetrasulfide، Hexadecanoic acid و Pentacosane عمده مواد تشکیل‌دهنده اسانس هستند که درصد این ترکیبات بین اکوتیپ‌های کشت‌شده و خودرو، تفاوت معنی‌داری (01/0p<) داشت. بیشترین عملکرد اسانس (22/0 درصد) در نمونه‌های خودرو برداشت‌شده از رویشگاه مله واقع در شهرستان پلدختر مشاهده شد  و کمترین عملکرد اسانس (12/0 درصد) در نمونه‌های برداشت‌شده از رویشگاه ذلقی در شهرستان الیگودرز ثبت شد. اگرچه عملکرد اسانس بین اکوتیپ‌ها در رویشگاه‌، تفاوت معنی‌داری داشت، اما عملکرد اسانس در اکوتیپ‌های کشت‌شده تفاوت معنی‌داری نشان ندادند. بیشترین میزان فسفر (mg/gDW50/4)، روی (μg/g DW30/2)، منگنز (μg/g DW 46/2)، قند محلول ( mg/g DW66/45) و پروتئین کل (mg/g DW 83/8) در گیاهان کشت شده اکوتیپ مله مشاهده شد. گیاهان برداشت شده از رویشگاه کاکارضا دارای بیشترین میزان ویتامین C (mg/100 g FW 66/80) و فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی (μg/mL 42IC50=) بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of the nutrients and chemical composition of Allium jesdianum Boiss & ‎Buhse in the habitats and field

نویسندگان [English]

  • Parvin Ramak 1
  • Vahid Karimian 2
  • Reza Siahmansour 1
1 Assistant Professor, Research Division of Natural Resources, Lorestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education ‎Center, AREEO, Khorramabad, Iran
2 Ph.D. in Pasture Science, Young Researchers and Elite Club, Yasooj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasouj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Allium jesdianum is an important and endangered medicinal plant that main habitats are located in the Zagros Mountains of Iran. In this study, onion of three ecotypes including Kakareza, Zalaghi and Meleh, which are grown in different geographical and climate conditions in Lorestan province, were collected. The collected onions were cultivated in a randomized complete block design with four replications. In the spring of the next year, plants are grown on the field and natural habitats were sampled to determine the physical and chemical properties of soil, soil samples were taken from 0-30 cm depth in each of the habitats and the farm, with three replications. The characteristics included quantitative and qualitative of essential oils, antioxidant activity total protein, vitamin C, non-structural sugars, and nutritional elements (nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, iron, manganese, copper and zinc) of the shoots. The results showed that Dimethyl Trisulfide, Dipropyl trisulfide, Di-2-propenyl tetrasulfide, Hexadecanoic acid, and Pentacosane are the major components of the Allium­­ jesdianum essential oil. The percentage of essential oil components was a significant difference (p<0.01) between wild and cultivated ecotypes. The maximum yield of essential oil (0.22%) was observed in wild plants from Mela habitat, and the minimume yield of essential oil (12.2%) was recorded in wild plants from Zalaghi habitat. Although the essential oil yield was significantly different between wild ecotypes, but there are no significant differences between these ecotypes at the farm. The highest amount of phosphorus (4.5 mg/g DW), zinc (2.3 μg/g DW), manganese (2.46 μg/g DW), non-structural sugars (45.66 mg/g DW), and total protein (8.83 mg/g DW) was observed in the cultivated ecotype of Meleh. Kakareza ecotype in habitat had the highest amount of vitamin C (80.66 mg/100 g FW) and antioxidant activity (IC50=42 μg/mL).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Allium jesdianum
  • Chemical composition
  • Cultivation
  • Habitat
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