تأثیر کودهای آلی، زیستی و شیمیایی نیتروژن بر برخی ویژگی‌های کمی و کیفی انگور سفید بی‌دانه

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 استادیار‎ ‎پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی آذربایجان‌غربی، سازمان ‏تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ارومیه، ایران

2 دانشیار پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات باغبانی، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی آذربایجان‌غربی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ‏ترویج کشاورزی، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی امکان جایگزینی اوره با کودهای زیستی و آلی، پژوهشی بر درختچه­های 14 ساله انگور سفید بی­دانه در یک خاک آهکی جرا گردید. نتایج نشان داد اثر تیمارها بر عملکرد خوشه، شاخص کلروفیل، مواد جامد محلول و اسیدیته کل میوه و غلظت عناصر نیتروژن، آهن، منگنز و روی برگ معنی­دار بود. بیشترین عملکرد میوه در تیمارهای مایه تلقیح مایع باکتری­های تثبیت­کننده نیتروژن (ازتوباکتر/آزوسپیریلوم)+ کودپوسیده گاوی و مایه تلقیح جامد باکتری­های تثبیت­کننده نیتروژن (ازتوباکتر/آزوسپیریلوم)+کود پوسیده گاوی به‌ترتیب با مقادیر 73/11 و 83/11 کیلوگرم/ تاک به‏‌‏دست آمد. تمامی تیمارها، به­میزان نسبتا مشابهی موجب افزایش درصد مواد جامد محلول و کاهش اسیدیته میوه نسبت به تیمار شاهد شدند. بیشترین شاخص کلروفیل و غلظت عناصر نیتروژن، آهن، منگنز و روی برگ در تیمارهای مایه تلقیح مایع باکتری­های تثبیت­کننده نیتروژن (ازتوباکتر/آزوسپیریلوم)+کودپوسیده گاوی و مایه تلقیح جامد باکتری­های تثبیت­کننده نیتروژن (ازتوباکتر/آزوسپیریلوم)+ کود پوسیده گاوی حاصل شدند. شاخص توازن تغذیه­ای در تیمارهای عدم مصرف نیتروژن و مصرف اوره به‌ترتیب معادل 160 و 145بودند، ولی در تیمارهای مایه تلقیح مایع باکتری­های تثبیت­کننده نیتروژن (ازتوباکتر/آزوسپیریلوم)+کودپوسیده گاوی و مایه تلقیح جامد باکتری­های تثبیت­کننده نیتروژن (ازتوباکتر/آزوسپیریلوم)+کود پوسیده گاوی به مقادیر 107 و 108 کاهش یافتند که بیانگر بهبود وضعیت توازن تغذیه­ای تحت تأثیر این تیمارها بود. نتایج نشان داد مصرف مایه تلقیح زیستی نیتروژن با کود حیوانی بیشتر از منبع شیمیایی نیتروژن، توازن تغذیه­ای انگور را بهبود بخشید و بیشترین عملکرد محصول را تولید نمود، ولی تأثیر آن بر کیفیت میوه مشابه اوره بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of organic, biological and chemical N-fertilizers on some quantity and quality ‎characteristics of Thompson seedless grape

نویسندگان [English]

  • Aziz Majidi 1
  • Hamed Doulati Baneh 2
1 Assistant Professor, Soil and Water Research Department, West Azerbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and ‎Education Center, AREEO, Urmia, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Horticulture Crops Research Department, West Azerbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and ‎Education Center, AREEO, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

To evaluate the possibility of replacing urea with organic and bio-fertilizers, a study carried out on 14 years old Thompson Seedless grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) in a calcareous soil. The results showed that treatments affect cluster yield, chlorophyll index, total soluble solids and total acidity of fruit and N, Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations in leaves, significantly. Maximum fruit yield resulted in liquid inoculum of N-fixing bacteria+animal manure and solid inoculum of N-fixing bacteria with 11.73 and 11.83 kg/vine, respectively. All treatments showed relatively similar increase in soluble solids content and decrease in fruit acidity compared to the control. The Highest chlorophyll index and concentration of N, Fe, Mn and Zn in leaf have been reported in liquid inoculum of N-fixing bacteria+animal manure and solid inoculum of N-fixing bacteria+animal manure treatments. The nutrient balance indices were 160 and 145 in treatments without N or urea application, but the amount was decreased to about 107 and 108 in N-fixing liquid inoculum+animal manure and solid N-fixing inoculum+animal manure treatments respectively, which shows the improvement in nutritional balance status under these treatments. The results indicated that application of N bio-inoculations with animal manure more than N chemical fertilizer source improved the nutritional balance of grape and produced the highest yield, but their effect on fruit quality was similar to urea.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Azotobacter/Azospirillum
  • Chlorophyll index
  • grape
  • Manure
  • Nutrient balance
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