مناسب‌ترین میزان مصرف آب در درخت لیموترش (‏Citrus aurantifolia‏) به روش آبیاری قطره‌ای ‏در شهرستان میناب

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسنده

‏ مربی پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات خاک وآب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی فارس، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش ‏و ترویج کشاورزی، شیراز، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور تعیین مناسب‌ترین میزان مصرف آب در درخت لیمو‌ترش (Citrus aurantifolia) پژوهشی سه ساله در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی از سال 1385 تا 1387 به‌روش آبیاری قطره‌ای در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی شهرستان میناب اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل چهار مقدار مصرف آب: I1 (مصرف آب آبیاری به­میزان 100 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه)، I2(I1 25% + تیمار اول)، I3(I1 25% - تیمار اول) و I4(I1 50% - تیمار اول) در سه تکرار بودند. نیاز آبی گیاه به­روش FAO-56 محاسبه و با دور یک روز در میان اعمال شد. بر اساس نتایج، با افزایش مقدار مصرف آب، عملکرد افزایش یافت. بین تیمارهای آبیاری تفاوت معنی‌داری از لحاظ عملکرد (01/0P≤) و بهره‌وری مصرف آب (05/0P≤) مشاهده شد. به‌نظر می‌رسد در سال‌های طبیعی (بدون مشکل کمبود آب) تیمارI2  به‌دلیل بالاترین عملکرد (kg/ha 6709) و در صورت وجود خشکسالی، تیمار I4 به­دلیل مصرف آب کمتر (حدوداٌ نصف تیمار I1) و بالاترین بهره‌‌وری مصرف آب (kg/m3 73/0)، جهت صرفه‌جویی مصرف آب، گزینه مناسبی است. همچنین بر اساس نتایج، مقدار آب مصرفی این گیاه در منطقه میناب، از مقدار محاسبه شده توسط مؤسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب 22 درصد بیشتر به‌دست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The most suitable water use range in lime tree (Citrus aurantifolia) with drip ‎irrigation method in Minab city

نویسنده [English]

  • Yaghoobali Karami
Research Instructor, Soil and Water Research Department, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources, Research and Education ‎Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to determine the optimum water consumption in lime tree (Citrus aurantifolia), A three years field experiment in a randomized complete block design from 2006 to 2008 was conducted using drip irrigation at Minab Agricultural Research Station. Treatments consisted of four water intake: I1) full irrigation: 100% of the water intake, I2) I1 + 25%I1, I3) I1 - 25%I1, I4) I1 - 50%I1 with three replications. The plant's water requirement was calculated using the FAO-56 method and the irrigation interval was set up every two days. Based on the results, increasing the water consumption increased the yield. Significantly differences were found in yield (P ≤0.01) and water productivity (P ≤0.05) among the treatments. It seems in normal years (without shortage water), I2 treatment is the best due to the highest yield (6709 kg/ha), and in drought years, I4 treatment because of less water use (about 50% I1) and the highest water productivity (0.73 kg/m3), is a good option for saving water consumption. Also, according to the results, the amount of water consumed by this plant in this region was obtained 22% more than the calculated value by the Soil and Water Research Institute.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • lime tree
  • Water Productivity
  • yield
  1. Ahmadi, K., Gholizadeh, H. A., Ebadzadeh, H. R., Hatami, F., Hosainpoor, R., Kazemifard, R. & Abdeshah, H. (2016). Agriculture Economic Aspects. Iran Statistics Horticultural Products. Results of the survey of the sample of garden products. Iran. Ministry of Jahad Agriculture. Deputy of Planning and Economic. Center of Information and Communication Technology. From: http://amar.maj.ir.
  2. Aini Nargese, H., Dayhimfard, R., Soufizadeh, S., Haghighat, M. & Noori, O. (2015). Prediction of climate change effects on wheat yield of Fars province using APSIM model. Crops Production. 8(4), 203-224. (in Farsi)
  3. Alibeygi, B., Soltany, F. & Kalantary, S. (2016). Effect of different irrigation regimes on quality and shelf life of half fresh cut watermelon (Citrullus lanatus cv. Crimson Sweet). Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 49(1), 117-131. (in Farsi)
  4. Alizadeh, A. (2004). Soil water plant Relationship. (4th ed.). Astan Quds Razavi Press. (in Farsi)
  5. Andrea, V., Nadia, N., Teresa, R. M., & Andrea, A. (2003). Analysis of some Italian lemon liquors (Limoncello). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(17), 4978-4983.
  6. Archer, E. & Strauss, H. C. (1989). Effect of shading on the performance of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. South African Journal of Enology and Viticultural, 10(2), 74-76.
  7. Bremner, J. M. (1965). Total nitrogen. In: J. M. Bigham (Ed), Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. (pp.1149-1178.) Soil Science Society of America, Inc. American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Madison, Wisconsin, USA
  8. Carter, M. R. & Gregorich, E. G. (2006). Soil sampling and methods of analysis.Canadian Society of Science. Lewis Publisher. Raton. Florida. USA.
  9. Castel, J. R. & Buj, A. (1990). Response of Salustiana oranges to high frequency deficit irrigation. Irrigation Science, 11(2), 121-127.
  10. Chapman, H. D. & Pratt, P. F. (1961). Methods of analysis for soils, plants and waters. University California Press, Riverside.
  11. Daneshnia, A. A. (1983). Investigation of the most suitable interval and depth of drip irrigation and depth on lemon. In: Proceedings of the Tonekabon Citrus Seminar, 3-4 Jul., Tonekabon, Iran, pp 373-385. (in Farsi)
  12. Daneshnia, A. A. (1994). The role of potassium in reducing the water consumption of citrus. Proceedings of the 4th Iranian Soil Science Congress, 29-31 Aug., Isfahan University of Technology, Iran, pp 153-154 (in Farsi)
  13. Donyavian, H. R. (2011). Investigating of the relationship between climatic factors and yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Sixth Conference on New Ideas in Agriculture. 11-12 March, Islamic Azad University Khorasgan Branch, Iran, pp 1-4. (in Farsi)  
  14. Doorenbos, J. & Kassam, A. H. (1979). Yield response to water. Irrigation and Drainage Paper, (33), 257.
  15. Fahimi, A. A. (1963). Minab semi-detailed soil report. Soil and Water Research Institute. 73. (in Farsi)
  16. Food and Agriculture Organization. (2015). Faostat-database. From: http:// www. F. A. O. org.
  17. Farshi, A. A., Shariati, M. R., Jarolahi, R., Ghaemi, M. R., Shahabifar, M. & Tavalai, M. M. (1997). Estimated water requirements for major crop and garden plants in the country. Volume II. Garden plants. (1st ed.). Karaj Agricultural Education Publishing. (in Farsi)
  18. Fotohi Ghazvini, R. O. & Fatahi Moghadam, J. (2016). Breeding citrus in Iran. (4th ed.). Gilan University Press. (in Farsi)
  19. García Sánchez, F., Syvertsen, J. P., Gimeno, V., Botía, P. & Perez-Perez, J. G. (2007). Responses to flooding and drought stress by two citrus rootstock seedlings with different water use efficiency. Physiologia Plantarum, 130(4), 532-542.
  20. Gee, G. W. & Bauder, J. W. (2002). In: H. D. Jacob & G. Clarke Topp, (Eds), Methods of soil analysis. Physical methods. Part 4. Particle size analysis. (pp. 201-214.) Soil Science Society of America. Madison. WI.
  21. Geerts, S. & Raes, D. (2009). Deficit irrigation as an on-farm strategy to maximize crop water productivity in dry areas. Agricultural Water Management, 96(9), 1275-1284.
  22. Ghasemi, K., Ghasemi, Y. & Ebrahimzadeh, M. A. (2009). Antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoid contents of 13 citrus species peels and tissues. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 22(3), 277-281.
  23. Gelly, M., Recasens, I., Girona, J., Mata, M., Arbones, A., Rufat, J. & Marsal, J. (2004). Effects of stage II and postharvest deficit irrigation on peach quality during maturation and after cold storage. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 84(6), 561-568.
  24. Gutierrez, M. V., Harrington, R. A., Meinzer, F. C. & Fownes, J. H. (1994). The effect of environmentally induced stem temperature gradients on transpiration estimates from the heat balance method in two tropical woody species. Tree Physiology, 14(2), 179-190.
  25. Haghighi, B., Boroumand, S. & Naseri, A. (2015). The effect of different irrigation managements in farrow and drip irrigation technique on potato yield and water productivity. Water Research Journal in Agriculture, 29(2). (in Farsi)
  26. Hatfield, J. L. (1995). Soil and water quality: An agenda for agriculture. Agricultural Water Management, 28(2), 179-180.
  27. Howell Furman, N. (1962). Standard methods of chemical analysis. Science, 137, 121-122.
  28. Iglesias, D. J., Cercós, M., Colmenero-Flores, J. M., Naranjo, M. A., Ríos, G., Carrera, E. & Talon, M. (2007). Physiology of citrus fruiting. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 19(4), 333-362.
  29. Iniesta, F., Testi, L., Orgaz, F. & Villalobos, F. J. (2009). The effects of regulated and continuous deficit irrigation on the water use, growth and yield of olive trees. European Journal of Agronomy, 30(4), 258-265.
  30. Jaihooni, M. (2011). Principles of citrus nutrition of Iran. New Product Agricultural Company, (in Farsi)
  31. Jalili Marandi, R. (2011). Fruit planting. (2nd ed.) Jahad Daneshgahi Press. (in Farsi)
  32. Khalid, M. S., Malik, A. U., Khan, A. S., Saleem, B. A., Amin, M., Malik, O. H. & Rehman, A. (2018). Geographical location and agro-ecological conditions influence kinnow mandarin (Citrus nobilis× Citrus deliciosa) fruit quality. International Journal of Agricultural and Biology, 20(3), 647-654.
  33. Lodolini, E. M., Polverigiani, S., Ali, S., Mutawea, M., Qutub, M., Pierini, F. & Neri, D. (2016). Effect of complementary irrigation on yield components and alternate bearing of a traditional olive orchard in semi-arid conditions. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 14(2), 1-10.
  34. McLean, E. O. (1982). Soil pH and lime requirement. In: A. Klute, (Ed), Methods of soil analysis: chemical and microbiological properties, part 2. (2nd ed.), (pp.199-224), Madison WI.
  35. Monselise, S. P. & Goldschmidt, E. E. (1982). Alternate bearing in fruit trees. Horticultural Review, 4(1), 128-173.
  36. Morgan, K. T., Obreza, T. A., Scholberg, J. M. S., Parsons, L. R. & Wheaton, T. A. (2006). Citrus water uptake dynamics on a sandy Florida Entisol. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 70(1), 90-97.
  37. Morsali, E., Heydari, N., Zare, A. & Hatami, H. R. (2017). Investigating of the role of processes in promoting agricultural water productivity in Iran. Journal of Water Research in Agriculture, B, (2), 163-180. (in Farsi)
  38. Nagaz, K., El Mokh, F., Ben Hassen, N., Masmoudi, M. M., Ben Mechlia, N., Baba Sy, M. O., & Ghiglieri, G. (2017). Impact of deficit irrigation on yield and fruit quality of orange trees (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck, CV. Meski Maltaise) in Southern Tunisia. Irrigation and Drainage. From: wileyonlinelibrary.com.
  39. Olsen, S. R. & Sommers, L. E. (1982). In: Klute, A. (Ed), Methods of soil Analysis: Chemical and microbiological Properties, part 2. (2nd ed.) (pp-297-234.). Agron. Monogr, 9, American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison WI.
  40. Parhizkari, A. Mozaffari, M. M. & Hoseini Khodadadi, M. (2015). Econemic analysis of climate change on yield of irrigated wheat in Shahrood watershed. Agricultural and Natural Resources journal, (18), 88-100. (in Farsi)
  41. Pérez Pastor, A., Ruiz Sánchez, M. C., Martínez, J. A., Nortes, P. A., Artés, F. & Domingo, R. (2007). Effect of deficit irrigation on apricot fruit quality at harvest and during storage. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 87(13), 2409-2415.
  42. Rastegar, H., Daneshnia, A. A., Shahrokhnia, A. & Mehdizadeh, U. (1993). Effect of different nitrogen and irrigation water on growth and chemical composition of sweet lime using drop irrigation in Jahrom. (Final report. 72/143). Soil and Water Research Institute. 43. (in Farsi)
  43. Ruiz Sánchez, M. C., Domingo Miguel, R. & Castel Sanchez, J. R. (2010). Deficit irrigation in fruit trees and vines in Spain. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 8(S2), S5-S20.
  44. Santos, F. L. (2018). Olive water use, crop coefficient, yield, and water productivity under two deficit irrigation strategies. Agronomy, 8(6), 1-17.
  45. Tandon, H. L. S. (1998). Method of analysis of soil. Plant. Waters and Fertilizer. Development and Consultation Organization, New Delhi. India. 144p.
  46. Tognetti, R., d’Andria, R., Lavini, A. & Morelli, G. (2006). The effect of deficit irrigation on crop yield and vegetative development of Olea European L. (cvs. Frantoio and Leccino). European Journal of Agronomy, 25(4), 356-364.
  47. Torrecillas, A., Domingo, R., Galego, R. & Ruiz-Sánchez, M. C. (2000). Apricot tree response to with holding irrigation at different phenological periods. Scientia Horticulturae,85(3), 201-215.
  48. Tuong, T. P. (2000). Productive water use in rice production: opportunities and imitations. Journal of Crop Production, 2(2), 241-264.
  49. Upadhyay, R. K., Divividi, P. & Ahmad, S. (2010). Screening of antibacterial activity of six plant essential oils against pathogenic bacterial strains. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences, 2(3), 152- 158.
  50. Zamani, A., Mortazavi, A. & Balali, H. (2014). Investigation of water productivity in different crop products in Dasht Bahar, Journal of Water Research in Agriculture, 28(1), 51-61. (in Farsi)
  51. Zwart, S. J. & Bastiaanssen, W. G. (2004). Review of measured crop water productivity values for irrigated wheat, rice, cotton and maize. Agricultural Water Management, 69(2), 115-133.