تعیین اجزای عملکرد گردوی ایرانی و مطالعه همبستگی آن با صفات فنولوژیک، مورفولوژیک و بیوشیمیایی

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه باغبانی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

2 استاد، گروه باغبانی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

چکیده

برآورد ضرایب همبستگی بین صفات مختلف، نه­تنها می­تواند سبب تسریع برنامه­های اصلاحی گردو شود، بلکه امکان بهبود سایر صفات را در کنار اصلاح برای صفات موردنظر فراهم می­کند. بدین منظور، داده­های حاصل از دو سال ارزیابی مورفولوژیک 325 ژنوتیپ­های انتخابی از استان­های فارس، مازندران و ایلام جهت مطالعه همبستگی بین صفات مورفولوژیک مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. همچنین به منظور مطالعه همبستگی بین صفات بیوشیمیایی و مورفولوژیک، خصوصیات بیوشیمیایی تعداد 52 ژنوتیپ برتر از 325 ژنوتیپ اولیه مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. بررسی نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که رابطه­ی خطی و معنی‌داری بین صفات فنولوژیک به­ویژه تاریخ برگدهی با تاریخ برداشت وجود داشت که از آن می­توان جهت تعیین تاریخ برداشت بر مبنای تاریخ برگدهی استفاده کرد. عملکرد با تاریخ برگدهی (**58/0)، وزن میوه (**64/0) و مغز (*46/0)، اندازه میوه (**56/0) و عادت باردهی جانبی (**53/0) همبستگی مثبت و با رنگ مغز (*38/0-) همبستگی منفی داشت که با توجه به نتایج حاصل رگرسیون گام به گام، عادت باردهی جانبی، وزن میوه و شاخص اندازه میوه از اجزای اصلی تعیین کننده عملکرد گردو بودند. بررسی همبستگی بین صفات بیوشیمیایی با ارتفاع از سطح دریا و صفات مورفولوژیک نشان داد که درصد روغن و پروتئین موجود در مغز گردو تحت تأثیر خصوصیات فیزیکی میوه (اندازه و وزن میوه و مغز) نمی­باشد. در مقابل، با افزایش ارتفاع از سطح دریا، درصد روغن و پروتئین موجود در مغز افزایش یافت. همبستگی منفی و معنی­داری بین میزان اسیدهای چرب غیراشباع با یک باند مضاعف (MUFA) و اسیدهای چرب غیراشباع با چند باند مضاعف (PUFA) و همچنین بین نسبت PUFA:SFA با ضخامت پوست سخت مشاهده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of Persian walnut yield components and its correlation with ‎phenological, morphological and biochemical traits

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saadat Sarikhani Khorami 1
  • Kourosh Vahdati 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture, Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Horticulture, Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Estimation of correlation coefficients can accelerate walnut breeding programs and provide the ability to improve other traits along with targeted breeding traits. For this purpose, data obtained from two-year morphological evaluation of 325 screened genotypes from Fars, Mazandaran and Ilam provinces were used to study the correlation between morphological traits. In addition, in order to study the correlation between biochemical and morphological traits, biochemical characteristics of 52 superior genotypes out of 325 screened genotypes were evaluated for one year. Based on the results, a linear and strong relation was observed between phenological traits especially budbreak and harvest date. Yield had a positive and strong correlation with budbreak date (0.58**), nut weight (0.64**), kernel weight (0.46*), nut size (0.56**) and lateral bearing (0.53**) and a negative correlation with kernel color (-0.38*). Based on the result of stepwise regression analysis, nut weight, lateral bearing and nut size index were the main components of walnut yield. Correlation study between biochemical traits with altitude and morphological traits showed that oil and protein percentage of walnut kernel was not affected by the physical characteristics of the nut (nut and kernel size and weight). In Contrast, the oil and protein content increased with increasing altitude. A strong and negative correlation was observed between MUFA and PUFA. Also, PUFA: SFA ratio negatively correlated with shell thickness.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • correlation coefficient
  • Genetic diversity
  • Nut size
  • oil percentage
  • Stepwise regression
  • Yield‎
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