ارزیابی فتوسنتز و پاسخ روزنه‌ها در شرایط کم‌آبیاری و خشک‌کردن جزیی منطقه ریشه در سیب‌زمینی (Solanum tuberosum L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 استاد، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

3 استادیار، پژوهشکده علوم گیاهی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

امروزه با توجه به کمبود منابع آبی، توجه بیشتری به استفاده از روش‌های ذخیره­کننده آب می‌شود. به این منظور آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با پنج تکرار در شرایط کنترل­شده در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد اجرا شد. عوامل موردبررسی شامل سه سطح آبیاری (آبیاری کامل (100درصد ظرفیت زراعی)، کم‌آبیاری (70درصد ظرفیت زراعی)، خشک‌کردن جزیی منطقه ریشه (70درصد ظرفیت زراعی))، زمان اعمال تنش (دو هفته پس‌از کاشت و 50درصد گلدهی) و دو سطح کود فسفاته (میزان موردنیاز براساس آزمایش خاک و افزودن 25درصد بیشتر از میزان توصیه­شده) بودند. در تیمارهای خشکی یک قسمت از گلدان‌ها دو هفته بعد از کاشت، تحت تنش خشکی قرار گرفت و قسمت دوم گلدان‌ها تا شروع گلدهی به‌طور کامل آبیاری شدند و در مرحله 50درصد گلدهی تیمارهای خشکی روی آن اعمال شد. نتایج نشان داد که تنش خشکی در هر دو مرحله گلدهی و 21 روز بعد از گلدهی، سبب کاهش بیشتر صفات فیزیولوژیک شامل شاخص محتوای کلروفیل، سرعت فتوسنتز، هدایت روزنه‌ای و سرعت تعرق شد. با افزایش مدت زمان خشکی تراکم روزنه‌ها در سطح زیرین برگ افزایش یافت. با وجود کاهش میزان فتوسنتز و ماده خشک در گیاهانی که تحت‌تنش خشکی قرار گرفتند، مقدار زیست‌توده شاخساره در تیمار خشک‌کردن جزیی منطقه ریشه نسبت به تیمار کم‌‌آبیاری بیشتر بود. افزایش کود فسفر بر تراکم روزنه تأثیر معنی‌دار نداشت، اما 21 روز پس‌از گلدهی باعث افزایش غلظت CO2 اتاقک زیرروزنه، نرخ فتوسنتز، سرعت تعرق و کاهش هدایت روزنه‌ای شد و زیست‌توده شاخساره با افزایش فسفر رابطه مستقیم داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Photosynthesis evaluation and Response of stomata in deficit irrigation and partial root zone drying in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Azam Asadi 1
  • Hamidreza Khazaie 2
  • Jafar Nabati 3
1 Former M.Sc. Student, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Research Center for Plant Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Today, due to limited of water resources, more attention is paid to the use of water storage methods. Thus, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with five replications in a controlled greenhouse in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 20017. The studied factors included three irrigation treatments (Full irrigation, deficit irrigation, partial root zone drying) and two levels of phosphate fertilizer (required amount based on soil analysis (25ppm) and adding 25% more than recommended (31ppm)). In partial root treatments, a part of the pots was under drought stress two weeks after planting, and the second part of the zone drying pots was irrigated until the beginning of flowering and 50% of flowering was applied to dry conditions. Results showed that drought stress in both flowering and 21 days after flowering caused a decrease in the physiological traits including chlorophyll content index, photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. As the duration of drought increased, the density of stomata in the lower leaf area increased. In spite of decreasing photosynthesis and dry matter content in drought stressed plants, biomass content in partial root zone drying was higher than deficit irrigated treatment. Increased phosphorus had no significant effect on stomatal density, but at 21 days after flowering the substomatal CO2, photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, reduced stomatal conductance, and biomass directly were related to increasing phosphorus.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Deficit irrigation
  • Drought
  • stomatal densities
  • transpiration rate
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