بررسی اثرات بستر کاشت و مکمل های غذایی بر برخی از صفات رویشی و زایشی قارچ صدفی سالمون (Pleurotus djamor)

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم باغبانی و فضای سبز، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل

2 استادیار، گروه علوم باغبانی و فضای سبز، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل

3 مربی، گروه علوم باغبانی و فضای سبز، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل

4 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل

چکیده

در این پژوهش از بسترهای کشت خاک­اره، کلش گندم، ضایعات برگ خرما، ترکیب خاک­اره با کلش گندم (به نسبت مساوی)، ترکیب خاک‌اره با ضایعات برگ خرما (به نسبت مساوی)، ترکیب کلش گندم با ضایعات برگ خرما (به نسبت مساوی) و ­همچنین مکمل­های شیمیایی اوره (10 گرم در لیتر به­ازای هر کیلوگرم بستر کشت، بر اساس وزن تر)، سولفات­منگنز (7 میکروگرم در کیلوگرم براساس ماده خشک بستر کشت)، فسفات­آمونیوم (15 گرم در لیتر به­ازای هر کیلوگرم بستر کشت، براساس وزن تر) و مکمل­های زیستی مایکوریزا (یک میلی­لیتر ماده تلقیح قارچ Glomus mosseaeبه­ازای هر کیلوگرم اسپاون قارچ سالمون) و ورمی­کمپوست (6 درصد وزنتر بستر کشت) به­صورت فاکتوریل (دو فاکتور بستر کشت و مکمل) بر پایه طرح پایه کاملاً تصادفی، با سه تکرار استفاده گردید. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین میزان نیتروژن اندام بارده بالغ قارچ، به بستر کشت ضایعات برگ خرما اختصاص داشت. همچنین مقادیر لوواستاتین اندام بارده بالغ قارچ در بستر کلش گندم غنی­شده با سولفات­منگنز و بستر ضایعات برگ خرما غنی­شده با قارچ مایکوریزا به­ترتیب 600 و20/219 میلیگرم بر 100 گرم وزن خشک قارچ بود. نتایج نشان داد که ماده خشک قارچهای چین سوم حاصل از 6 بسترکشت غیرترکیبی و ترکیبی در مقایسه با قارچهای چین اول و دوم بیشتر بود. همچنین  بیشترین (20/12 روز) و کمترین (80/7 روز) زمان برای کامل­شدن رشد رویشی میسلیوم به­ ترتیب به بسترهای کشت غیر­ترکیبی ضایعات برگ خرما و کلش گندم اختصاص داشت. نتایج مربوط به عملکرد کل اندام میوه­ای نشان داد که بیشترین (1499 گرم) و کمترین (80/904 گرم) وزن اندام میوهای به­ترتیب به بستر کشت کلش گندم و بستر کشت ضایعات برگ خرما اختصاص داشت. همچنین بیشترین (1312 گرم) وزن تر اندام بالغ میوهای (عملکرد) به مکمل شیمیایی سولفات­منگنز اختصاص داشت و نیز تفاوت معنیداری بین این مکمل با سه مکمل غذایی دیگر از نظر عملکرد در سطح احتمال 5 درصد وجود داشت؛ بنابراین ترکیب کلش گندم و سولفات­منگنز بستر کشت مناسبی جهت تولید قارچ صدفی سالمون توصیه می­گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the effects of substrate and nutritional supplements on some vegetative and reproductive characteristics of salmon oyster mushroom (Pleurotus djamor)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abbasali Kimasi 1
  • Dariush Ramezan 2
  • Mehdi Aran 2
  • Reza Bagheri 3
  • Abbas Nasiri Dehsorkhi 4
1 M. Sc. Student, Department of Horticulture and Landscape, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture and Landscape, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
3 Instructor, Department of Horticulture and Landscape, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
4 Ph. D. Candidate, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
چکیده [English]

In this research, substrates consisting of sawdust, wheat straw, date palm leaf wastes, the combination of sawdust with wheat straw (in equal ratio), the combination of sawdust with date palm leaf wastes (in equal ratio), the combination of wheat straw with date palm leaf wastes (in equal ratio) as well as chemical supplements of urea (10g in liter per kg of substratebased on fresh weight of substrate), manganese sulfate (7μg. kg based on dry matter substrate), ammonium phosphate (15g in liter per kilogram of substrate, based on fresh weight of substrate) and bio additive supplements of mycorrhiza (one milliliter of Glomus mosseae inoculum per kg of salmon oyster mushroom spawn) and vermicompost (6% fresh weight of substrate) in the form of factorial experiment (two factors of substrate and supplement) based on a completely randomized design with three replications were used. The results showed that highest nitrogen content of adult fruit body was allocated to date palm leaf wastes substrate. Also, the amount of lovastatin in adult fruit body was in substratewheat straw enriched with manganese sulfate and substrate date palm leaf wastesenriched with mycorrhizal was recorded 600 and 219.22 mg.100g dry weights, respectively. Also, the results showed that the dry matter of oyster mushroom from third-flush in six substrates (combined and non-combined) was higher than the first and second-flush oyster mushroom. The highest (12.20 days) and the lowest (7.80 days) time to complete the vegetative growth of mycelium were allocated to non-combined substrates of date palm leaf wastes and wheat straw, respectively. The results of total yield showed that the highest (1499.00g) and lowest (904.88g) fruit body weight were allocated to wheat straw substrate and date palm leaf wastes substrate, respectively. Also, the highest (1312.00g) fresh weight of the adult fruit body (yield) is devoted to supplementation of manganese sulfate, and there was also a significant difference between this supplement with three other nutritional supplements in terms of yield at probability level of 5%. Therefore, the combination of wheat straw and manganese sulfate as a suitable substrate for the production of salmon oyster mushroom is recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agricultural wates
  • enrichment
  • mycelium
  • spawn running
  • substrate
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