مقایسه روش‌های ارزیابی مقاومت به کلروز آهن در ترکیب‌های پیوندی سیب

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق دکتری، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

2 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات گیاهان زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش وترویج کشاورزی اصفهان، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ایران

4 دانشیار، پژوهشکده میوه‌های معتدله و سردسیری، مؤسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

5 استادیار بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

کلروز آهن ناشی از آهک، از مشکلات مهم درختان میوه به­ویژه سیب در خاک­های آهکی می­باشد. این عارضه هر ساله خسارت زیادی به درختان میوه در این مناطق وارد می­سازد. تحقیق حاضر با هدف تعیین یک روش مناسب برای ارزیابی مقاومت پایه­ها و ارقام سیب در برابر تنش کلروز آهن انجام گرفت. بدین منظور آزمایشی به­صورت فاکتوریل بر پایۀ طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با 18 تیمار و 3 تکرار انجام شد. تیمارها شامل رقم (گلاب کهنز، رد دلیشز و گلدن­دلیشز)، پایه در6 سطح (M9، M26 از پایه­های پاکوتاه، M7 وMM106  از پایه­های نیمه‌پاکوتاه و M25 وMM111 از پایه­های پر رشد سیب) و تنش آهن در سه سطح (2 میکرومولار آهن، 90 میکرو مولار آهن همراه با و بدون بی­کربنات سدیم10 میلی­مولار) انجام شد. نهال­های پیوندی سیب در گلدان­های حاوی پرلیت پس از دو ماه و نیم تغذیه با محلول غذایی نصف غلظت هوگلند به­مدت 8 هفته، تحت تیمارهای فوق قرار گرفتند. در این پژوهش اثرات سطوح مختلف تنش آهن بر شاخص­های آهن-کارایی و ویژگی­های بیوشیمیایی ترکیب­های پیوندی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نتایج حاکی از واکنش­های متفاوت ارقام و پایه­ها و در نتیجه ترکیب‌های پیوندی به تنش­های اعمال­شده بود. ارقام و پایه­ها تفاوت­های زیادی در جذب و انتقال آهن دارند، به­طوری­که آنها را می­توان به ارقام و پایه‌های مقاوم و حساس و نیمه­مقاوم طبقه­بندی نمود. به­طور کلی روش بیوشیمیایی، ارزیابی دقیق­تری از تفاوت­های ارقام و پایه­ها در پاسخ به تنش آهن نسبت به ارزیابی نظری شاخص­های آهن-کارایی فراهم نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparision of the methods for evaluating iron chlorosis resistance in different apple scion/ rootstock combinations

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Pirmoradian 1 2
  • Lotfali Naseri 3
  • Hamid Abdollahi 4
  • Ali Asghar Shahabi 5
1 Former Ph.D. Student, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Urumieh University, Iran | Assistant Professor, Horticultural crop Resaerch Department, Isfshan agricultural and natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Isfahan, Iran
2 Former Ph.D. Student, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Urumieh University, Iran | Assistant Professor, Horticultural crop Resaerch Department, Isfshan agricultural and natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Isfahan, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Urumieh University, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Temperate Fruits Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
5 Assistant Professor, Soil Science Resaerch Department, Isfshan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Lime induced iron chlorosis is one of the important problems of fruit trees, especially apple, in calcareous soils. This disorder affects many fruit trees in these areas, each year. The purpose of this study was to determine a suitable method for evaluation of apple rootstocks and cultivars against iron stress. A factorial experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design with 18 treatments and 3 replications was performed. Treatments included cultivars (Golab Kohanz, Red Delicious and Golden Delicious), rootstock at 6 levels (M9, M26, M7, M25, MM106, MM111) and iron stress at three levels (2 µM iron, 90 µM iron with and without 10 mM sodium bicarbonate). The treatments were applied to the grafted pot trees in in perlite after 8 weeks of feeding with half strength Hoagland solution. In this study, the effects of different levels of iron stress on theoretical Fe-efficiency indices and the biochemical properties of grafted combinations were evaluated. The results indicated different reactions of the cultivars and rootstocks, and thus the grafted combinations to the applied stresses. Cultivars and rootstocks showed remarkable differences in the absorption and transfer of iron, so that they can be categorized into resistant (iron efficient), sensitive (iron inefficient) and semi-sensitive ones. The method of biochemical assessment more accurately showed the differences between cultivars and rootstocks in response to iron stress, and provided an effective evaluation compared to the theoretical Fe-efficiency indices.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Apple cultivars and rootstocks
  • Biochemical assessment
  • Fe-efficiency
  • Theoretical indices
  1. Abdollahi, H., Gasemi, A. A. & Mehrabipor, S. (2010). The effects of cultivar and rootstock interaction on iron chlorosis of some Iranian quince genotypes. Seed and Plant Improvement Institute Journal, 1, 1-26.
  2. Asadi-Kangarshahi. A., Akhgaghi, A. N. & Samar, M. (2015). Chlorosis index and active iron for evaluating of citrus rootstocks rsistance to soil limes. Iranian Journal of Soil Research, 3, 269-284.
  3. Benyahia, H., Beniken, L., Omari, F. E., Benazzouze, A., Handaji, N., Msatef, Y. & Olitrault, P. (2011). Evaluation of the resistance of few citrus rootstocks to alkalinity by applying a faste test of secreening. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(4), 780-784.
  4. Cakmak, I., Ekiz, H., Yilamz, A., Torun, B., Kololi, N., Gultekin, I., Alkan, A. & Eker, S. (1997). Differential response of rey, triticale, bread wheat and durum wheats to zinc deficiency in calcareous soils. Plant and Soil, 188, 1-10.
  5. Cesco, S., Neumann, G., Tomasi, N., Pinton, R. & Weisskopf, L. (2010). Release of plant-borne flavonoids into the rhizosphere and their role in plant nutrition. Plant and Soil, 329(1-2), 1-25.
  6. Chouliaras, V., Dimassi, K., Therios, I., Molassiotis, A. & Diamantidis, G. (2004). Root-reducing capacity, rhizosphere acidification, peroxidase and catalase activities and nutrient levels of Citrus taiwanica and C. volkameriana seedlings, under Fe deprivation conditions. Agronomie, 24(1), 1-6.
  7. Clark, R. B. (1990). Physiology of cereals for mineral nutrient uptake, use, and efficiency. In; V. C. Baligar (Ed.), Crops as Enhancers of Nutrient Use, pp131-209. Academic Press.
  8. De laGuardia, M. D. & Alcántara, E. (2002). Bicarbonate and low iron level increase root to total plant weight   ratio in olive and peach rootstock. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 25(5), 1021-1032.
  9. Emami, A. (1997). Plants Analisis Methods. Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization Publication, Iran. 128 p. (in Farsi)
  10. Fageria, N. K., Baligar, V. C. & Li, Y. C. (2008). The role of nutrient efficient plants in improving crop yields in the twenty first century. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 31(6), 1121-1157.
  11. Fageria, N. K., Santos, A. B., Barbosa Filho, M. P. & Guimarães, C. M. (2008). Iron toxicity in lowland rice. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 31(9), 1676-1697.
  12. Fernández, A., Fiehn, O., López-Millán, A. F. & Abadía, J. (2010). Changes in the proteomic and metabolic profiles of Beta vulgaris root tips in response to iron deficiency and resupply. BMC Plant Biology, 10(1), 1.
  13. Forner-Giner, M. A. & Ancillo, G. (2011). Iron Stress in Citrus. Intech Open Access Publisher.
  14. Forner-giner, M. A. (2009). The citrus rootstocks ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin, Poncirus trifoliata, Forner-Alcaide 5 and Forner-Alcaide 13 vary in susceptibility to iron deficiency chlorosis. Journal of the American Pomological Society, 63(4), 160-167.
  15. Forno, D. A., Youshida, S. & Asher, C. J. (1975). Zinc deficiency in rice. II. Studies on two varieties differing in susceptibility to zinc deficiency. Journal of Plant Soil, 42, 551-563.
  16. Gogorcena, Y., Abadía, J. & Abadía, A. (2005). A new technique for screening iron-efficient genotypes in peach rootstocks: Elicitation of root ferric chelate reductase by manipulation of external iron concentrations. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 27(10), 1701-1715.
  17. Gonzalo, M. J., Moreno, M. A. & Gogorcena, Y. (2011). Physiological responses and differential gene expression in Prunus rootstocks under iron deficiency conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology, 168(9), 887-93.
  18. Gourley, C. J., Allan, D. L. & Russelle, M. P. (1994). Plant nutrient efficiency: A comparison of definitions and suggested improvement. Plant and Soil, 158(1), 29-37.
  19. Gupta, M., Kumar, A. & Gautam, R. (2011). Iron essentiality; in relation to morphology and physiology of   roots. Indian Journal of Applied and Pure Biology, 26(1), 91-105.
  20. Graham, R. D., Ascher, J. S. & Hynes, S. C. (1992). Selecting zinc-efficient cereal genotypes forsoils of low zinc status. Plant and Soil, 146, 241-250.
  21. Jones, A., Panagos, P., Barcelo, S., Bouraoui, F., Bosco, C., Dewitte, O., Gardi, C., Erhard, M., Hervás, J. & Hiederer, R. (2012). The State of Soil in Europe. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
  22. Khoshgoftarmanesh, A. H., Schulin, R., Chaney, R. L., Daneshbakhsh, B. & Afyuni, M. (2010). Micronutrient-efficient genotypes for crop yield and nutritional quality in sustainable agriculture. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 30(1), 83-107.
  23. Khoshgoftarmanesh, A. H., Eshghizadeh, H. Sanai, A., Mirlohi, M. & Taban, M. (2012). Physiological index of iron deficiency of the trees in Esfahan landscape. Iranian Journal of Agricultural and Forestry, Water and Soil Science and Technology, 64, 19-31.
  24. Ksouri, R., Debez, A., Mahmoudi, H., Ouerghi, Z., Gharsalli, M. and Lachaâl, M. (2007). Genotypic variability within Tunisian grapevine varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) facing bicarbonate-induced iron deficiency. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 45(5), 315-322.
  25. Landsberg, E. C. (1996). Hormonal regulation of iron-stress response in sunflower roots: a morphological and     cytological investigation. Protoplasma, 194(1-2), 69-80.
  26. Mahmoudi, H., Ksouri, R., Gharsalli, M. & Lachaal, M. (2005). Differences in responses to iron deficiency between two legumes: Lentil (Lens culinaris) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Journal of Plant Physiology, 162(11), 1237-1245.
  27. Marschner, H. (1995). Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. (2nd eds.) Academic Press. New York.
  28. Mengel, K. (1994). Iron availability in plant tissues-iron chlorosis on calcareous soils. Plant Soil, 165, 275-283.
  29. Mirabdolbaghi, M. (2007). Study the effect of lime on decreasing leaf nutrient and lime-induced chlorosis on apple clonal rootstocks. Final Report. Horticultural Science Department of Agriculture Ministry, Iran. (in Farsi)
  30. Molassiotis, A., Tanou, G., Diamantidis, G., Patakas, A. & Therios, I. (2006). Effects of 4-month Fe deficiency exposure on Fe reduction mechanism, photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and antioxidant defense in two peach rootstocks differing in Fe deficiency tolerance. Journal of Plant Physiology, 163(2), 176-185.
  31. Mohamadi, S., Bani Nasab, B., Khoshgoftarmanesh, A. H. & Ghasemi, A. A. (2013). Quince (Cydonia oblonga    Mill.) seedling and clonal rootstocks responses to iron. 8th Iranian Horticultural Congrees. Bu Alisina University.
  32. Motesharezadeh, B. Hesam-Arefi, A. & Savaghebi, G. R. (2017). The effect of bicarbonate on iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) uptakes by soybean varieties. Desert, 22(2), 145-155.
  33. Pestana, M., Correia, P. J., David, M., Abadía, A., Abadía, J. & de Varennes, A. (2011). Response of five citrus rootstocks to iron deficiency. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 174(5), 837-846.
  34. Pestana, M., Varennes, A., Abad, J. & Faria, E. (2005). Differential tolerance to iron deficiency of citrus rootstocks grown in nutrient solution. Scientia Horticulturae, 104, 25-36.
  35. Pirmoradian, M., Naseri, L., Abdollahi, H. & Shahabi, A. A. (2017). Ferric chelate reductase activity as screening index for selecting iron chlorosis resistance of apple rootstocks. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 48(3), 655-668. (in Farsi)
  36. Ranieri, A., Castagna, A., Baldan, B. & Soldatini, G. F. (2001). Iron deficiency differently affects peroxidase isoforms in sunflower. Journal of Experimental Botany, 52, 25-35.
  37. Rombola, A. D., Bruggemann, W., Lopez, A. F., Tagliavini, M., Abadia, J., Marangoni, B. & Moog, P. R. (2002). Biochemical responses to iron deficiency in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa). Tree Physiology, 22, 869-875.
  38. Romera, F. J., Alcántara, E. & De La Guardia, M. D. (1991). Characterization of the tolerance to iron chlorosis in different peach rootstocks grown in nutrient solution. Plant and Soil, 130(1-2), 121-125.
  39. Romera, F. J., García, M. J., Alcántara, E. & Pérez-Vicente, R. (2011). Latest findings about the interplay of   auxin, ethylene and nitric oxide in the regulation of Fe deficiency responses by strategy I plants. Plant Signaling and Behavior, 6(1), 167-170.
  40. Shabi, A. A. & Mallakoti, M. J. (2001). The effects of water irrigation bicarbonate on leaf chlorophyll and nutrients in different apple cultivars. Soil and Water, 12(14), 135-148.
  41. Schmidt, W. (2006). Iron stress responses in roots of strategy I plants. In Iron Nutrition in Plants and Rhizospheric Microorganisms Springer Netherlands. Pp. 229-250.
  42. Sharma, S. (2007). Adaptation of photosynthesis under iron deficiency in maize. Journal of Plant Physiology, 164(10), 1261-1267.
  43. Soil Science Society of America. (1997). Glossary of Soil Science Terms. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin.
  44. Tabatabaei, S., Razzazi, A., Khoshgoftarmanesh, A. H., Khodaeian, N., Mehrabi, Z., Fathian, S., Askari, E., Ramezanzadeh, F. & Arabzadegan, H. (2011). Response of different crops to iron deficiency in soilless culture. Agronomy Journal, 90, 65-73.
  45. Tagliavini, M. & Rombolà, A. D. (2001). Iron deficiency and chlorosis in orchard and vineyard ecosystems. European. Journal of Agronomy, 15, 71-92.
  46. Tagliavini, M., Scudellari, D., Marangoni, B., Bastianel, A., Franzin, F. & Zamborlini, M. (1992). Leaf mineral composition of apple tree: Sampling date and effects of cultivar and rootstock 1. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 15(5), 605-619.
  47. Tagliavini, M. & Rombolà, A. D. (2001). Iron deficiency and chlorosis in orchard and vineyard ecosystems.  European Journal of Agronomy, 15(2), 71-92.
  48. Wu, H., Li, L., Du, J., Yuan, Y., Cheng, X. & Ling, H. Q. (2005). Molecular and biochemical characterization of the Fe (III) chelate reductase gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant and Cell Physiology, 46(9), 1505-1514.
  49. Wu, T., Zhang, H. T., Wang, Y., Jia, W. S., Xu, X. F., Zhang, X. Z. & Han, Z. H. (2012). Induction of root Fe (lll) reductase activity and proton extrusion by iron deficiency is mediated by auxin-based systemic signalling in Malus xiaojinensis. Journal of Experimental Botany, 63(2), 859-870.