ارزیابی اثر سطوح مختلف ورمی‌کمپوست و قارچ‌های مایکوریزا بر عملکرد دانه و تولید اسانس انیسون (Pimpinella anisum L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج

3 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز

4 عضو سازمان بسیج مهندسین کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کهگیلویه و بویراحمد

چکیده

یکی از ارکان کشاورزی پایدار کاربرد کودهای زیستی به­منظور تأمین عناصر غذایی مورد نیاز گیاه با هدف حذف یا کاهش قابل­ملاحظه در مصرف نهاده­های شیمیایی است،لذا در این راستا با هدف بررسی اثر قارچ مایکوریزا و ورمی­کمپوست بر عملکرد دانه و تولید اسانس انیسون، آزمایشی مزرعه­ای به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی93-1392در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه یاسوج اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل ورمی­کمپوست در سه سطح (0 ، 5 و 10 تن در هکتار) و قارچ مایکوریزا در چهار سطح (شاهد، کاربرد Glomusmosseae، کاربرد Glomusintraradicesو کاربرد تلفیقی هر دو گونه) بود. نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد منابع مختلف تغذیه­ای اثر معنی­داری بر اکثر صفات مورد مطالعه در گیاه دارویی انیسون داشت. با توجه به نتایج، بیشترین ارتفاع بوته (46/53 سانتی­متر)، تعداد چتر در بوته (44/35 عدد)، عملکرد دانه (26/2968 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، درصد اسانس (40/3) و عملکرد اسانس (21/101 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در نتیجه کاربرد 10تن در هکتار ورمی­کمپوست حاصل شد. بیشترین وزن هزار دانه (86/2 گرم) و عملکرد بیولوژیک (43/8989 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در اثر کاربرد تلفیقی 10تن در هکتار ورمی­کمپوست و برهمکنش دوگونه G. mosseaeو G. intraradicesو بیشترین شاخص برداشت (03/42 درصد) در تیمار کاربرد 5 تن در هکتار ورمی­کمپوست به­دست آمد.به­طورکلی نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که کاربرد کودهای زیستی مایکوریزا و ورمی­کمپوست نقش چشمگیری در افزایش عملکرد کمی و کیفی گیاه دارویی انیسون داشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation the effect of vermicompost different levels and mycorrhiza fungi on yield and essential oil production of Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sattar Gholami Ganje 1
  • Amin Salehi 2
  • Sadegh Shahrasbi 3
  • Amiri Mokhtar Amiri Nasab 4
1 Former M.Sc. Student, Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran
3 Former M.Sc. Student, Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
4 Member of the Basij Organization of Agriculture and Natural Resources Engineers, Yasouj, Iran
چکیده [English]

One of the pillars of sustainable agriculture systems, is using biological fertilizers to meet the nutrient requirements of the plant with the aim to eliminate or substantially reduce the use of chemical inputs. Therefore, to investigate effects of mycorrhiza and vermicompost on grain yield and essential oil production of anise, a field experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture, University of Yasouj during 2013-2014 growing season. The experiment was conducted as factorial based on complete randomized block design with three replications.Treatments included vermicompost levels (including control, 5 and 10 ton. ha-1) and mycorrhiza (including control, application of Glumus mosseae, application of Glumus intraradices and integrated application of G. mosseae× G. intraradices). Results showed that use of different nutritional resources had a significant effect on the most studied traits in the medicinal herb Anise. So, the highest plant height (53.46 cm), number of umbels per plant (35.44), grain yield (2968.26 kg.ha-1), essential oil perentage (3.40) and oil yield (101.21 kg.ha-1) were obtained in 10 ton.ha-1 vermicompost. Results also showed that the highest 1000-grain weight (2.86gr) and biological yield (8989.43 kg.ha-1) were obtained in the interaction of 10 ton.ha-1 vermicompost+integrated use of G.mosseae and G. intraradices. Also, the highest harvest index (42.03%) was obtained in 5 ton.ha-1 vermicompost. In general, results showed that the use of bio-fertilizers of mycorrhiza and vermicompost had significant role in increasing yield and quality in Anise.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Anise
  • bio fertilizers
  • essential oil perentage
  • Economic performance
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