اثر زمان محلول‌پاشی اوره بر عملکرد و کیفیت میوه درختان پرتقال تامسون‏ ناول

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، مؤسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، پژوهشکده مرکبات و میوه‌های نیمه‌گرمسیری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رامسر

2 مربی، مؤسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، پژوهشکده مرکبات و میوه‌های نیمه‌گرمسیری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رامسر

چکیده

تحقیق حاضر با هدف تعیین مناسبترین زمان محلول‌پاشی اوره جهت بهبود کمیت و کیفیت میوه (درصد تشکیل میوه، عملکرد، اندازه میوه، ضخامت پوست میوه، اسید قابل‏تیتراسیون و مواد جامد محلول) پرتقال ’‌تامسون‏ناول‘ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck.) طی دو سال اجرا شد. بدین منظور اوره با غلظت 5/0 درصد بر تاج درختان 20 ساله در سه زمان‏ جداگانه شامل دی، اسفند و تیر محلول‌پاشی شد. علاوه براین، یک تیمار محلول‌پاشی با آب نیز به‏عنوان تیمار شاهد در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد درختان محلول‌پاشی شده با اوره، صرف­نظر از زمان کاربرد، غلظت نیتروژن برگ و درصد تشکیل میوه بیشتری نسبت به تیمار شاهد داشتند. علاوه براین، محلول‌پاشی اوره بر عملکرد و شاخص­های کیفی میوه تأثیر معنی­دار (05/0P<) داشته است. اثر زمان محلول‌پاشی اوره بر تغییرات نسبت مواد جامد محلول کل به اسید قابل‏تیتراسیون میوه (شاخص بلوغ برای برداشت) و عملکرد، کاملاً وابسته به سال مورد مطالعه بود؛ به‌طوری­که در سال اول آزمایش (سال کم­محصول)، بیشترین عملکرد در زمان محلول‌پاشی دی و تیرماه و بیشترین مقدار شاخص بلوغ در تیمار شاهد مشاهده گردید. به هرحال، در سال دوم (سال پرمحصول) بیشترین مقدار عملکرد و شاخص بلوغ در زمان­های محلول‌پاشی تیر و اسفندماه مشاهده شد. بنابراین، تعیین سطح و زمان کاربرد عناصر غذایی، برای تحریک فرایند فیریولوژیکی خاصی در مرکبات حائز اهمیت می­باشد و به سال مورد مطالعه (پرمحصول یا کم‏محصول) بستگی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of urea foliar spray time on yield and fruit quality of ‘Thomson Navel’ sweet orange trees

نویسندگان [English]

  • Tahereh Raiesi 1
  • Bijan Moradi 2
1 Assistant Professor, Horticultural Science Research Institute, Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Center, Agricultural Research and Education Organization (AREO), Ramsar, Iran
2 Instructor, Horticultural Science Research Institute, Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Center, Agricultural Research and Education Organization (AREO), Ramsar, Iran
چکیده [English]

The current study was aimed at determining the optimum time of urea foliar spray to improve fruit quantity and quality (fruit set%, yield, size, peel thickness of fruits, titrable acidity (TA), total soluble solid (TSS)) of ‘Thomson Navel’ orange trees (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck.) for 2 consecutive years. Thus, a 0.5% solution of urea was sprayed on to 20 years old orange trees during January (T1), March (T2) and June (T3). There was a set of control trees that only sprayed with simple water (T0). The results showed that the trees receiving foliar applied urea, independent of application time, had significantly greater leaf nitrogen content and fruit set % than the control trees. In addition, the impact of the urea foliar application on the yield and quality properties of fruits was significant (P<0.05). The effect of urea spray time on TSS/TA (maturity index) and yield depended on studied year. In first year (low yield), the highest level of yield observed in T1 and T3 treatments and the highest level of TSS/TA observed in T0 treatment. In second year (high yield), the highest level of yield and TSS/TA observed in T2 and T3 treatments. Therefore, it is important to determine the optimal level and time of application of nutrients to stimulate a specific physiological process in citrus, depending on the studied year (high yield or low yield).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fruit set percent
  • leaf nitrogen
  • maturity index
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