ارزیابی تأثیر غنی‌سازی بستر کشت با مکمل‌های شیمیایی و زیستی بر برخی ویژگی‌های کیفی و عملکرد قارچ صدفی (Pleurotus ostreatus)

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 استادیار علوم باغبانی، گروه علوم باغبانی و فضای سبز، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل

2 دانشجوی سابق دکتری علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان

3 استادیار، گروه مهندسی علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه بین‌المللی امام خمینی(ره)، قزوین

چکیده

ترکیب غذایی بستر کشت، یکی از مهمترین عوامل اصلی در رشد و نمو قارچ صدفی (Pleurotus ostreatus) می­باشد. در این پژوهش اثرات ترکیبی مکمل­های شیمیایی شامل سولفات­مس (100 میکرو­گرم بر گرم ماده خشک بستر کشت)، نیترات­آمونیوم (150 میکروگرم بر گرم ماده خشک بستر کشت)، نیترات­منیزیم (100 میکرو­گرم بر گرم ماده خشک بستر کشت) و مکمل زیستی باکتری ریزوبیوم (108 باکتری در هر میلی‌لیتر برای یک کیلوگرم اسپاون) و همچنین بسترهای کشت خاک اره، کلش گندم، باگاس نیشکر، کلش برنج و ضایعات صنایع روغن­کشی زیتون و ترکیبی از آنها، جهت پرورش قارچ، مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند. مقادیر نیتروژن اندام بارده قارچ در بستر کشت ترکیبی کلش گندم و ضایعات زیتون و بستر کشت غیر­ترکیبی خاک­اره به­ترتیب، 91/8 میلی­گرم در 100 گرم وزن خشک و 6/2 میلی­گرم در 100 گرم وزن خشک بود. همچنین مقدار ریبوفلاوین قارچ­های حاصل از بستر کشت ترکیبی باگاس نیشکر و تفاله زیتون و بستر کشت غیرترکیبی خاک­اره به­ترتیب 9/4 میلی­گرم در 100 گرم ماده خشک و 4/1 میلی­گرم در 100 گرم ماده خشک ثبت شد. همچنین مرحله پنجه­دوانی میسلیوم در بسترکشت ترکیبی کلش گندم با ضایعات زیتون در مدت­زمان 2/16 روز انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که عملکرد کل (مجموع سه چین) اندام میوه­ای در بستر کشت ترکیبی کلش گندم و تفاله زیتون غنی­شده با نیترات­آمونیوم و بستر کشت غیر­ترکیبی خاک­اره غنی­شده با سولفات­مس به‌ترتیب 35/1862 و 90/840 گرم بود؛ بنابراین در این پژوهش بستر کشت ترکیبی کلش گندم و ضایعات صنایع روغن­گیری زیتون که با نیترات­آمونیوم غنی شده بود، بستر مناسبی جهت تولید قارچ صدفی می­باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation effects of substrate enrichment by chemical and biological supplements on some qualitative characteristics and yield of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Dariush Ramezan 1
  • Fatemeh Moradipour 2
  • Mohammad Mahdi Zarabi 3
1 Assistant Professor of Horticulture Science, Department of Horticulture and landscaping, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Iran
2 Former Ph. D. Student, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Horticultural Sciences Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
چکیده [English]

Substrate composition is one of the most important determinants of the growth and development of oyster mushroom.In this study, the combined effects of chemical supplements including copper sulfate (100 ug/g D.M of substrate), ammonium nitrate (150 ug/g D.M of substrate), magnesium nitrate (100 ug/g D.M of substrate) and biological supplementation of rhizobium bacteria (108 bacterium per ml for one kilogram of spawn) and also, substrates of sawdust, wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, rice straw and olive-oil industry wastes and ratios from substrates, were studied for the cultivation of mushroom. Nitrogen of fruit body in combined substrate of wheat straw with olive pomace and the non-combined substrate of sawdust were 8.91 mg/100g D.W. and 2.6 mg/100g D.W. respectively. Also amount of riboflavin in combined substrate of sugarcane bagasse with olive pomace and the non-combined substrate of sawdust were 4.9 mg/100g D.W.. and 1.4 mg/100g D.W.. respectively. Also, spawn run-stage was completed in 16.2 days in combined substrate of wheat straw with olive-oil industry wastes. The results showed that total yield (total of three flush) of fruit body in combined substrate of wheat straw and olive-oil industry wastes that enriched with chemical supplementation of ammonium nitrate and the non-combined substrate of sawdust enriched with copper sulfate was 1862.35g and 840.90g respectively.Therefore, combined substrate of wheat straw and olive-oil industry wastes that enriched with ammonium nitrate, is a suitable substrate for the production of ostreatus mushrooms.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fruit body
  • industrial and agricultural wastes
  • nutritional value
  • rhizobium bactera
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