تغییرات مورفولوژیک، فیزیولوژیک و بیوشیمیایی در گیاهان جوان سه رقم زیتون (Olea europaea L.) در شرایط تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، تهران

2 دانشیار، بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرمانشاه، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه، ایران

3 استاد، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

4 استادیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، تهران

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی عکس­العمل به خشکی برخی از ارقام تجاری زیتون، آزمایش گلدانی به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه کاملاً تصادفی در شهرستان گیلانغرب واقع در استان کرمانشاه در سال 1394 در هوای آزاد به اجرا در آمد. تیمارها شامل سه سطح آبیاری به­میزان 100 (شاهد)، 75  و 50 درصد ظرفیت مزرعه و سه رقم زیتون (زرد، آمیگدالولیا و کنسروالیا) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که رشد رویشی از قبیل ارتفاع نهال، تعداد و سطح برگ و طول ریشه به­طور­ معنی­داری تحت تأثیر تنش آب، بسته به رقم قرار داشت. ارقام تحت تنش کم­آبی، دارای تفاوت معنی‌داری در میزان فعالیت آنزیم­های پراکسیداز و کاتالاز بودند. بیشترین میزان فعالیت آنزیم پراکسیداز و کاتالاز در رقم کنسروالیا و تیمار 50% آبیاری مشاهده شد. مقدار فنل، تحت تنش کم­آبی افزایش نشان داد. ارقام زرد، آمیگدالولیا و کنسروالیا به­ترتیب بیشترین تا کمترین میزان فنل را تحت تیمارهای تنش خشکی در مقایسه با گیاهان شاهد داشتند. میزان مالون­دی­آلدهید در تیمارهای مختلف تحت تأثیر تنش خشکی دارای تفاوت معنی­دار بود. بیشترین افزایش میزان مالون­دی­آلدهید در تیمار 50% آبیاری در رقم زرد با حدود 57 درصد افزایش در مقایسه با گیاهان شاهد مشاهده شد. به­طورکلی، پاسخ ارقام به تنش خشکی متفاوت بود و هر کدام پاسخی خاص نشان دادند. رشد رویشی شاخساره تحت شرایط تنش خشکی در رقم زرد بیشتر از کنسروالیا و آمیگدالولیا بود و رقم زرد از لحاظ افزایش مقدار فنل و فعالیت پراکسیداز و کاتالاز در شرایط تنش خشکی برتر بود درحالی­که ’کنسروالیا‘ بیشترین افزایش مقدار قند را داشت. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Morphological, physiological and biochemical changes of young plants of some olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.) under drought stress conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Samira Ahmadipor 1
  • Isa Arji 2
  • Ali Ebadi 3
  • Vahid Abdossi 4
1 Ph. D. Candidate, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Horticulture and Crops Research Department, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education center, AREEO, Kermanshah, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehan, Karaj, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of drought on some of the olive cultivars, a pot experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design in Gilan-Gharb city of Kermanshah Province in pot condition during 2015. The treatments consisted of three irrigation levels of 100 (control), 75 and 50% field capacity, and three olive cultivars (Zard, Amigdalolia and Konservolia). The results showed that vegetative growth such as plant height, Leaf number, leaf area and root length were significantly affected by water stress depending on the cultivar. Peroxidase and catalase enzymes activity were significantly different between cultivars under water stress. The highest levels of peroxidase and catalase activity were observed in Konservolia cultivar and 50% irrigation treatments. The amount of phenol increased under water stress. Zard, Amigdalolia and Konservolia had the highest levels of phenol under stress treatments in compare to the control plants, respectively. The amount of malondialdehyde in different treatments was significantly affected by drought stress. The highest amount of malondialdehyde was observed in irrigation treatments of 50% in Zard cultivar with about 57% compared to control plants. Generally, according to the response of cultivars, they differed in drought stress, and each showed a specific response. Vegetative growth under conditions of drought stress was higher in Zard, Konservolia and Amigdalolia cultivars, respectively. Zard variety was superior in terms of phenol content and peroxidase and catalase activity, while Konservolia had the highest sugar content.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • ‘Amigdalolia’
  • Catalase
  • ‘Conservolia’
  • Malondialdehyde
  • proline
  • Peroxidase
  • ‘Zard’
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