بررسی مفهومی و کاربردی باغ‎سازی ایرانی به سبک دوره پیش از اسلام

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، تهران، ایران

2 استاد، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 استاد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، تهران، ایران

4 استادیار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

انسان کاشف طبیعت و عامل برقراری پایداری بقا بوده و هست و این نکته را از شعر، ادب و هنرهای تزیینی ایران در ادوار مختلف تاریخ می­توان یافت، که نشانگر احترام و علاقه ایرانیان به طبیعت است. پژوهش‎ها نشان می‎دهد که باغ‎سازی در ادوار مختلف تاریخ (چه پیش از اسلام و چه پس از اسلام)، شامل تغییرات و اختلافاتی بوده که به­نظر می­رسد تا حدی پیرو تغییر آیین‎های دینی و فرهنگی هر دوره می‎باشد. در این پژوهش سعی شده تا به بررسی کلیاتی از ساختار باغ ایرانی در دوره پیش از اسلام (­دوره‎های هخامنشیان و ساسانیان) پرداخته شود تا با ایده­گرفتن از آثار و باغ‎های موردی برجای مانده از این دو دوره، بخش­هایی (با وسعت 2410 مترمربع) از باغ نمونه کشوری دانشگاه تهران و در زمینی به وسعت 40 هکتار به این سبک طراحی شود و بدین­وسیله به درک صحیح موضوع و ملموس­بودن آن برای کاربران، که قسمت اعظم آن را دانشجویان تشکیل می‎دهند، کمک نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study concept and application of paradise with style of pre-Islam period

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elham Faraji Dizaji 1
  • Mohsen Kafi 2
  • Ahmad Khalighi 3
  • Sepideh Kalateh Jari 4
1 Former Ph.D. Student, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Professor, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research, Tehran, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Human was and is discoverer of nature and agent of continuance installing and survival stability. This pointer can be found from poem and literature and Iranian decorative arts in different periods of history, which is marker of respect and interest of Iranians to nature. Contrary to current imagination in opinions, based on similarity of identity and structure of paradise in passing history can be said that gardening in different periods of history (pre-Islam either or post-Islam) had been including changes and differences that it seems it is follower of change in religious and cultural manners in each period. In this study, it has been tried to evaluate a generalities of paradise structure in pre-Islam period (Achaemenid and Sassanid periods), which with patterning from remainder effects and gardens of both periods, it is designed the parts (2410 m2) of civil model garden for university of Tehran and in a land with 40 hectare extent and hereby it is helped to correct concept of the subject for users (mainly students).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Hakhamaneshian period
  • Iranian garden
  • Sasanian period
  • the gardening evolution in Iran
  1. Alami, M. (1999). Safavid garden. Journal of Architecture and Urban Planning, 43(42). (in Farsi)
  2. Arberry, A. J. (1969). The legacy of Persia.
  3. Ardalan, N. & Bakhtiar, L. (2002). Sense of unity. Translator: Hamid Shahrokh, Tehran, Khak Press. (in Farsi)
  4. Atashinbar, M., Mortazi Mehrabani, A. & Vahidian, N. (2015). Persian Garden of Tehran A Creative Landscape by Integrating Tradition into Modernity. Manzar Journal, 7(31). (in Farsi)
  5. Bahar, M. (2001). A search on Iranian Mythology. Tehran: Agah press. (in Farsi)
  6. Bier, L. (1986). Sarvistan. A Study in Early Iranian Architecture. Translation Amir Hosein Soltani konas Foroosh. Sobhan noor Press. (in Farsi)
  7. Donald, N. W. (1979). Persian gardens and garden pavilions. Dumbarton Oaks.
  8. Doost Khah, J. (2008). Avesta the eldest Iranian songs. Vol. 2. Tehran: Morvarid Press. (in Farsi)
  9. Emam-Shooshtari, S. M. A. & Shahidi, Y. (2013). Twelve historical documents. Magazine of Arteshtaran, No 10, Tehran, Artesh Press (in Farsi)
  10. Hamzeh Nejad, M., SaadatJu, P. & Ansari, M. (2014).Comparative Analyses of Persian Garden in Sassanid and Islamic Period according to the Paradise Desciription. Journal of Iranian Architecture Studing, 5. (in Farsi)
  11. Herman, J. (1994). Revival of Art and Culture in Ancient Iran. Translation: MehrdadRahmati. Markaz-E nashr-E danshgahi Press (in Farsi)
  12. https://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki
  13. Jafari, A. A. F. (2006). Historical and physical analysis of the city of shiz and its conformity with the existing takht-e-soleiman site. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba, 25, 25-34. (in Farsi)
  14. Kafi, M. (2014). Xeriscape, a review on a tradition in the art of Iranian gardening. Manzar, 26, 12-17.
  15. Kaplan, S., Kaplan, R. & Wendt, J. S. (1972). Rated Preference and Complexity for Natural and Urban Visual Material. Percept Psychophysics, 12(4), 354-356.
  16. Khansari, M., Moghtader, M. R. & Yavari, M. (1998). The Persian garden: Echoes of paradise. Mage Publishers. (in Farsi)
  17. Labibzade, R., Hamzenejhad, M. & Khan Mohamadi, M. E. (2012). Influence of ideas and ideals on Persian garden structures case study: “pasargad garden” from achaemenid period and “fin garden” from Islamic period. Bagh-e-Nazar. (in Farsi)
  18. Mansouri, S. A. & Heydar Nattaj, V.  (2009). A Critical Study on the Chaharbagh Theory in Creation of Persian Garden. Bagh-E-Nazar (Garden of Vision), 6, 17-30. (in Farsi)
  19. Massoudi, A. (2009). Acquaintance with Iranian Gardens Bagh-e Shazdeh. Faza Publication, Teheran. (in Farsi)
  20. Motedayen, H. (2009). Causes of Appearance of Iran’s Historical Gardens. Bagh-e Nazar, 7(15), 51-62.
  21. Nasr, H. (2006). Religion and the order of nature. Tehran: Hekmat Press. (in Farsi)
  22. Noghrekar, E. & Labibzade, R. (2014). Evaluation and criticism of chicaneries in Art, year. No 8. The Architecture and Urbanization. Iran Architecture and repair Journal. (in Farsi)
  23. Poormand, H. A. & Keshtkar Ghalaee, A. R. (2011). The Analysis of Essence Causes in Persian Garden. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba, (47) 55-62. (in Farsi)
  24. Rohani, Gh. (2012). Garden design and landscape construction. Farhang-E jame Press. (in Farsi)
  25. Shahcheraghi, A. (2010). Paradigms of Paradise, Recognition and Recreation of the Persian Garden. Tehran. Jahad daneshgahi Publishing. (in Farsi)
  26. Siroos, Sh. (2014). Achaemenid Paradise, the Origin of Persian Garden. Manzar course, 6(29). (in Farsi)
  27. Soltanzade, H. (1998). Iran Architecture and Urbanization. Narrated in Ferdowsi Book of king. Tehran: culture researches office.
  28. Stornach, D. (1994). Parterres and stone watercourses at Pasargadae: notes on the Achamenid Contribution to garden design. Studies in the History of Garden and Designed Landscape, 14(1), 3-12. Translation: Hamid khatib Shahidi. (in Farsi)
  29. www.google earth.com
  30. Xenophon. (1922). Xenophon in Seven Volumes, 3. Carleton L. Brownson. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA; William Heinemann, Ltd., London. Kooroshname. Culture and science Press. First edition. Translation: R. Mashayekhi. (in Farsi)
  31. Zarei, M. (2009). An introduction to world architecture, Fanavaran Press. 8th Volume, Hamedan, Iran. (in Farsi)