تأثیر برخی از شرایط اقلیمی و خاکی بر کمیت و کیفیت اسانس اکوتیپ‌های مختلف آویشن دنایی (Thymus daenensis Celak subsp. daenensis)

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق دکتری، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

2 استادیار، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان

3 دانشیار، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

4 استاد، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

چکیده

آویشن دنایی (Thymus daenensis Celak subsp. daenensis) گیاهی است دارویی، اندمیک ایران و متعلق به خانواده نعناع که از میزان اسانس و تیمول اسانس بالایی برخوردار است. ارزیابی اکوتیپ‌های مختلف این گیاه به­منظور شناسایی برترین اکوتیپ، از لحاظ بالاترین درصد اسانس و تیمول و نیز تعیین ارتباط خصوصیات خاکی و اقلیمی با کمیت و کیفیت اسانس آن به­منظور شناسایی مناسب‌ترین اقلیم جهت تعیین محیط کشت ثانویه این گیاه جهت اهلی‌سازی امری ضروری به­نظر می‌رسد. در این پژوهش، هشت منطقه (ملایر 1، ملایر 2، جوزان، اراک، خانه میران بالا، خانه میران پایین، شازند، زاغه) از مناطق پراکنش این گیاه انتخاب و مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. اسانس نمونه‌های گیاهی جمع‌آوری­شده از هر منطقه استخراج و پس از تعیین بازده اسانس، اجزای اسانس و مقادیر آنها به کمک دستگاه‌های GC و GC/MS مشخص گردید. ارتباط بین خصوصیات اقلیمی و خاکی مناطق مورد مطالعه با میزان اسانس و اجزای آن مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج بیانگر آن بود که اکوتیپ‌ها اختلاف معنی‌داری از لحاظ درصد اسانس با یکدیگر داشتند. بیشترین و کمترین درصد اسانس به­ترتیب مربوط به اکوتیپ‌های اراک (5%) و ملایر 2 (5/2%) بود. جزو غالب اسانس همه اکوتیپ‌ها، تیمول بود و بیشترین و کمترین درصد تیمول به­ترتیب در اسانس اکوتیپ‌های جوزان (88/78%) و ملایر 1 (16/67%) مشاهده گردید. بین درصد اسانس با میانگین دمای روزانه، رس، سیلت و میزان آهک خاک همبستگی مثبت بالایی وجود داشت که این همبستگی‌ها می‌توانند در تعیین محیط کشت ثانویه این گیاه جهت اهلی‌سازی مفید واقع شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Influence of some climatic and soil conditions on essential oil quantity and quality of different Thymus daenensis Celak subsp. daenensis ecotypes

نویسندگان [English]

  • jalal khorshidi 1 2
  • Majid Shokrpour 3
  • Vahideh Nazeri 4
1 Former Ph.D. Student, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran | Assistant Professor, University of Kurdistan, Iran
2 Former Ph.D. Student, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran | Assistant Professor, University of Kurdistan, Iran
3 Associate Professor, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
4 Professor, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Thymus daenensis Celak subsp. daenensis, an endemic medicinal plant in Iran, belongs to Lamiaceae family that has a high essential oil content and high Thymol in essential oil. Evaluations of different ecotypes of this species in order to identify the paramount ecotype with the highest essential oil percentage and Thymol content and also correlations of edaphic and climate conditions with essential oil quantity and quality in order to identify the best conditions for domestication of this species were the aims of this study. In this study, essential oils of plants referred to eight natural habitat (Malayer 1, Malayer 2, Jovzan, Arak, Khane miran e bala, Khane miran e paien, Shazand and Zaghe) of this species extracted and measured (v/w%) and then compositions of essential oils were determined by GG and GC/MS instruments. Soil and climatic characteristics were identified and their correlations to essential oil content and compositions were calculated. Results showed that the ecotypes had significant difference in essential oil percentage. The highest and the lowest essential oil percentage were obtained in Arak (5%) and Malayer 2 (2.5%) ecotypes, respectively. Thymol was dominant component of essential oils of all ecotypes. The highest (78.88%) and the lowest (67.16%) amounts of Thymol were observed in ecotypes of Jovzan and Malayer 1, respectively. Positive correlations between the essential oil percentage with mean daily temperature, clay, silt and soil lime were found. These correlations explained that edaphic and climatic conditions had a significant effect on the quantity and quality of essential oil and could help us to identify the second culture conditions for domestication of this plant.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • domestication
  • Endemic
  • Lamiaceae
  • Thymol
  • Thymus daenensis Celak
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