رشد رویشی و کارایی مصرف آب دانهال‌های مرکبات در کاربرد همزمان سایه‌اندازی و پاره‌خشکیدگی ناحیۀ ریشه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق دکتری، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

2 مربی مؤسسۀ تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، پژوهشکدۀ مرکبات و میوه‌های نیمه‌گرمسیری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رامسر، ایران

3 استاد، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ایران

4 دانشیار، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ایران

چکیده

تغییرات اقلیمی و تقاضای رو به افزایش آب برای تولید کشاورزی، استفاده بهینه از منابع آب را ناگزیر کرده است. در این آزمایش اثرگذاری‌های پاره‌خشکیدگی ناحیۀ ریشه (PRD) و کاربرد آن همراه با سایه‌اندازی بر رشد و کارایی مصرف آب دانهال‌های دوساله نارنج در رامسر بررسی شد. این آزمایش به‌صورت گلدانی و در قالب طرح کامل تصادفی انجام شد. تیمارهای این آزمایش شامل آبیاری کامل(FI)، پاره‌خشکیدگی ناحیۀ ریشه (PRD) و دو تیمار پاره‌خشکیدگی ناحیۀ ریشه همراه با سایه‌اندازی متوسط (MShPRD) و بالا (HShPRD) بود که به مدت هفت ماه در سال 1394 اجرا شد. مقدار آب آبیاری بر پایۀ کمبود رطوبت خاک تعیین شد. کاهش آب مصرفی در تیمار PRD بی‌سایه‌اندازی، 6/29 درصد و در تیمارهای با سایه‌اندازی متوسط و بالا به‌ترتیب 2/36 و 2/39 درصد بود. مقایسۀ میانگین‌ها نشان داد، در تیمار HShPRD اندازه‌های قطر تنه، وزن، حجم، طول، سطح و تراکم طولی ریشه و نسبت‌ ریشه به‌کل گیاه کمتر از دیگر تیمارها بود و نیز حجم و وزن ساقه و شاخه و تولید مادۀ خشک، کمتر از آبیاری کامل بود. ولی نسبت‌های وزن خشک برگ و همۀ اندام‌های هوایی به‌کل گیاه و نیز نسبت اندام‌های هوایی به ریشه (S/R) در این تیمار بیش از دیگر تیمارها بود. تفاوت تیمارها از نظر شمار، سطح و وزن خشک و تر برگ، ارتفاع گیاه، طول شاخه‌ها، قطر ریشه، سطح ویژه و طول ویژۀ ریشه معنی‌دار نبود. درنتیجه، بیشترین کارایی مصرف آب آبیاری در تیمار MShPRD دیده شد ولی این برتری تنها نسبت به آبیاری کامل معنی‌دار بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Vegetative growth and water use efficiency of citrus seedlings in simultaneous application of shading and partial root zone drying

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hormoz Ebadi 1 2
  • Mahmood Raeini-Sarjaz 3
  • Mohammad Ali Gholami sefidkoohi 4
1 Former Ph.D. Student, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University (SANRU) | Instructor, Lecturer of Horticultural Science Research Institute, Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Center, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ramsar, Iran
2 Former Ph.D. Student, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University (SANRU) | Instructor, Lecturer of Horticultural Science Research Institute, Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Center, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ramsar, Iran
3 Professor, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
چکیده [English]

Due to climate change and increasing of water demand for agricultural productions, optimum use of water resources is necessary. In this experiment, the effects of partial root zone drying (PRD) along with shading were investigated on growth and water use efficiency of 2-year old sour orange seedlings in Ramsar, northern town near Caspian Sea, Iran. The pot experiment were assigned to a completely randomized design and were treated during seven months in 2015. Treatments were full irrigation (FI), partial root zone drying (PRD), PRD along with moderate shade (MShPRD) and PRD along with high shade (HShPRD). Irrigations water volumes were determined on the basis of soil moisture deficiency. Water consumption reduction relative to FI treatment for PRD, MShPRD and HShPRD treatments were 29.6, 36.2 and 39.2 percent, respectively. Mean comparion indicated that trunk diameter, dry weight ratio of root/total plant and root variables (dry and fresh weight, volume, length, area and length density) in HShPRD were significantly lower than those of other treatments. Also, total dry matter and volume and weight of stem and branches in HShPRD were lower than those of full irrigation treatment. Dry weight ratios of leaf/total plant, shoot/total plant and shoot/root in this treatment were higher than those of other treatments. Treatments had no significant effect on leaf variables, plant height, branches length, root diameter and specific root area and length. In conclusion, the highest irrigation water use efficiency was observed in MShPRD, but it had significant difference only with full irrigation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Deficit irrigation
  • citrus
  • full irrigation
  • Radiation
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