تأثیر قارچ مایکوریزا بر عملکرد دانه، میزان روغن دانه و کارآیی مصرف آب گیاه دارویی گاوزبان (Borago officinails L.) تحت شرایط تنش آبی

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق دکتری فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج، ایران

2 استادیار، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج، ایران

3 دانشیار، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج، ایران

چکیده

خشکی یکی از عامل‌های اثرگذار بر گیاهان دارویی است و از سویی، قارچ قارچریشه (میکوریز) نقش مؤثری در بهبود عملکرد گیاهان رویارو با تنش خشکی دارد، لذا به همین منظور، آزمایشی به­صورت کرت­های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی، در منطقۀ بویراحمد، در سه تکرار و در سال­های­ 1394 و 1395 اجرا ­شد. عامل­های آزمایش شامل سطوح آبیاری (عامل اصلی) در پنج سطح شامل آبیاری پس از 30، 60، 90، 120 و 150 میلی­متر تبخیر آب از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A و قارچ قارچریشه (عامل فرعی) در سطوح بدون کاربرد قارچ، کاربرد گونۀ Glomus mosseaeو کاربرد گونۀ Glomus intraradices لحاظ ‌شد. نتایج تجزیۀ واریانس نشان داد، اثر متقابل قارچ قارچریشه و تنش آب بر عملکرد دانه، عملکرد زیست‌توده (بیوماس)، وزن هزاردانه، درصد روغن و کارایی مصرف آب در سطح 1 درصد معنی­دار بود. در تیمار W30GM، بیشترین عملکرد دانه (5/276 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و در تیمار W150NG، کمترین مقدار عملکرد دانه (69 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به دست آمد. در تیمار W30GM، بیشترین عملکرد زیست‌توده (5389 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و در تیمار I150NG، کمترین مقدار عملکرد زیست‌توده (1517 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به دست آمد. در تیمار W90NGبیشترین درصد روغن دانه (38/29 درصد) و در تیمار W150NG، کمترین مقدار این صفت (97/14 درصد) به دست آمد. در تیمار W90GM، بیشترین کارایی مصرف آب دانه (02460/0 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب) و در تیمار W120NG، کمترین مقدار این صفت (01185/0 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب) به دست آمد. این نتایج نشان می­دهد، در شرایط تنش آبی، کاربرد قارچ قارچریشه می­تواند، در تعدیل تنش کمبود آب و افزایش عملکرد دانه، عملکرد زیست‌توده، وزن هزاردانه، درصد روغن و کارایی مصرف آب گاوزبان نسبت به گیاهان شاهد مؤثر واقع شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of mycorrhiza on yield, oil content and water use efficiency of medicinal plant of Borage (Borago officinails L.) under water stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Rahimi 1
  • Sharokh Jahanbin 2
  • Amin Salehi 2
  • Hooshang Farajee 3
1 Former Ph.D. Student of Crop Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Yasouj University, Iran
2 Assistant Professor and Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Yasouj University, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Yasouj University, Iran
چکیده [English]

Drought is one of the factors that affect medicinal plants and on the other hand, the role of mycorrhizal fungi was effective in improving the performance of some medicinal plants exposed to water stress. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted split-plot in randomized complete block design in the Boyerahmad region in three replications during years 2015 and 2016. The studied factors consisted of irrigation levels (primary factor)  as irrigation after W1= 30, W2= 60, W3= 90, W4= 120 and W5= 150 mm water evaporation from evaporation pan class A and mycorrhiza fungi (sub-factor) at the levels of non application, application with Glomus mosseae species and application with Glomus intraradices species. Results of analysis of variance showed that the interaction between mycorrhizal fungi and water stress on grain yield, biological yield, 1000 grain weight, oil content and water use efficiency was significant at the level of 1%. In the treatment W30GM, the highest grain yield (276/5 kg/ha) and in the treatment W150NG, the lowest value of grain yield (69 kg) were obtained. In the treatment W30GM, the highest biological yield (5389 kg/ha) and in the treatment W150NG, the lowest value of biological yield (1517 kg/ha) were obtained. In the treatment W90GM, the highest seed oil percentage (29.38%) and in the treatment W150NG, the lowest value of seed oil percentage (14.97%) was obtained. In the treatment W90GM, the highest water use efficiency for grain (0.02460 kg/m3) and in the treatment W120NG, the lowest value of seed oil percent (0.01185 kg/m3) were obtained. Results showed that under water stress conditions, the use of mycorrhizal fungi could be effective in moderate water stress and increased grain yield, biological yield, grain weight, oil content and water use efficiency of borage compared to the control plants.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Glomus mosseae
  • Glomus intraradices
  • Irrigation
  • 1000 grain weight
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