تأثیر تنش خشکی و قارچ‌های میکوریز آربسکولار بر عملکرد و کیفیت سیب‌زمینی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

2 استاد، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

3 استادیار، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه جیرفت

4 استاد پژوهش، مؤسسۀ تحقیقات خاک و آب، کرج

چکیده

کمبود آب در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک از جمله کشور ایران یکی از فاکتورهای محدود کننده رشد و نمو و عملکرد گیاهان زراعی می­باشد. به همین دلیل یافتن راهکار­های مناسب جهت غلیه بر تنش خشکی  و افزایش تولید از اهمیت ویژه­ای برخوردار است. به منظور مطالعه تأثیر تلقیح قارچ‌های میکوریز آربسکولار بر عملکرد و کیفیت سیب‌زمینی (Solanum tuberosum L.) رقم آگریا تحت تنش خشکی، یک آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در گلخانه گروه خاکشناسی دانشگاه زنجان انجام شد. در این آزمایش غده‌های بذری گیاه سیب‌زمینی در خاکی با بافت لوم شنی در جعبه‌های مخصوص کشت شدند. فاکتورهایی که مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند شامل چهار سطح تنش خشکی (حفظ رطوبت خاک در حد ظرفیت مزرعه، 80 ، 60 و 40 درصد ظرفیت مزرعه) و چهار سطح تلقیح با قارچ میکوریز ( بدون تلقیح به عنوان شاهد، تلقیح با قارچ گلوموس اینترارادیسز (Glomus intraradices)، تلقیح با قارچ گلوموس موسه (Glomus mosseae) و تلقیح با مخلوطی از دو نوع قارچ) بودند. در این آزمایش عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد سیب‌زمینی، غلظت نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم در برگ­ها و غده­های گیاه اندازه‌گیری شدند. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش نشان داد تأثیر تنش خشکی و قارچ‌های میکوریزی بر همه صفات اندازه‌گیری شده معنی‌دار بود و  تنش خشکی همه صفات مورد مطالعه به جز غلظت نیتروژن برگ و غده سیب‌زمینی را کاهش داد. در مقابل کاربرد قارچ‌های میکوریزی عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد سیب‌زمینی و غلظت عناصر غذایی گیاه را افزایش داد و توانست اثر سوء تنش خشکی بر گیاه سیب‌زمینی را کاهش دهد. بیشترین عملکرد سیب زمینی به مقدار 87/4 کیلوگرم در متر مربع از رطوبت 100 درصد ظرفیت مزرعه و تلقیح با قارچ گلوموس موسه به­دست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The affect of inoculation with arbuscular mycorhizal fungi on yield and quality of potato under drought stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Neda Abedi 1
  • Ahmad Golchin 2
  • Saeid Shafiei 3
  • Hossein Besharati 4
1 Former M. Sc. Student, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University, Iran
2 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Jiroft University, Iran
4 Professor, Soil and Water Research Institute, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Water scarcity in arid and semi-arid looking like Iran country, including one of the factors limiting the growth and yield of crops. That's why finding suitable solutions for overcoming on stress and increased production of special importance. To study the effect of inoculation with mycorhizal fungi on yield and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under drought stress a factorial experiment with randomized complete block design and three replications was performed in greenhouse of Soil Science Department, University of Zanjan, Iran. In this experiment, potato tubers were cultivated in boxes with sandy loam soils. The factors which studied were, four levels of drought stress (FC, 80% of FC, 60% of FC and 40% of FC) and four levels of mycorrhizal fungi (no-inoculation (control), inoculation with Glomus intraradices, inoculation with Glomus mosseae and a combination of them). In this experiment yield and yield components of potato and concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium in leaf and tuber were measured. The results of analysis of variance of data showed that the effects of drought stress and mycorrhizal fungi were significant on all measured traits. The drought stress decreased all measured traits except the nitrogen concentrations of potato leaf and tuber. Application of mycorrhizal fungi increased the yield and yield components of potato and concentrations of plant nutrients in plant. The overall results showed that application of mycorrhizal fungi can decrease the adverse effects of drought stress on potato plant. The highest yield of potato at the rate of 4.87 Kg per square meter of 100% of field capacity moisture and inoculated with the fungus G. Mosse, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought stress
  • macro element
  • Mycorrhizal fungi
  • potato
  • yield indices
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