تأثیر پساب کارخانۀ روغن‌کشی زیتون بر ویژگی‌های زیستی خاک، درصد و کیفیت روغن و عملکرد میوۀ دو رقم زیتون

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه جیرفت، جیرفت، ایران

2 دانشیار و استادیار، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

3 دانشیار، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

4 استادیار، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

چکیده

پساب تولیدی از کارخانۀ روغن‌کشی زیتون ناشی از سه مرحلۀ (فاز) فراوری و تولید یک فرآورده با بار آلایندگی بالا است که در فرآیند استخراج روغن‌زیتون تولید می­شود. ازآنجایی‌که میزان زیادی آب، مواد آلی و مواد مغذی برای رشد گیاهان دارد می­توان در باغ­های زیتون به‌عنوان یک راه­حل برای دفع آن استفاده کرد. در این پژوهش، درختان زیتون دو رقم زرد و روغنی محلی (روغنی) با چهار سطح پساب (0، 90، 190 و 380 لیتر به ­ازای هر درخت) در دو سال تیمار شدند. آزمایش به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی در منطقۀ منجیل استان گیلان اجرا شد. نتایج بررسی‌ها نشان داد، کاربرد پساب به­ویژه در سطوح بالا، کربن آلی، تنفس میکروبی، کربن زیست‌تودۀ میکروبی و فعالیت آنزیم دهیدروژناز خاک را افزایش داد، تأثیر مثبتی بر عملکرد میوه داشت. همچنین کیفیت روغن‌زیتون را از نظر اسیدهای چرب آزاد و ارزش پراکسید، بهبود بخشید اما تأثیری بر درصد روغن در مادۀ خشک نداشت. ویژگی­های زیستی (بیولوژیکی) خاک محل کشت دو رقم متفاوت بود. همچنین تفاوت معنی­داری بین دو رقم از نظر کیفیت روغن وجود داشت. کیفیت روغن هر دو رقم و تحت سطوح مختلف تیمار با پساب در محدودۀ روغن‌زیتون طبیعی ممتاز و فوق ممتاز بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of olive oil mill wastewater application on soil biological properties, oil quality and fruit yield of two cultivars of olive

نویسندگان [English]

  • Azam Seyedi 1
  • Yousef Hamidoghli 2
  • Mahmood Ghasem-Nezhad 3
  • Nasrin Ghorbanzadeh 4
1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jiroft, Jiroft, Iran
2 Associate Professors, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
3 Associate Professors, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Olive mill wastewater (OMW) in three phase system is a byproduct of olive oil extraction with high pollution load. Since it has a lot of water, organic matter and plant growth nutrients, can be used as a solution for disposal of it in olive groves. In this study, the olive trees cultivars Zard and Local Roughani (Roughani) were treated by different levels of OMW (0, 90, 190 and 380 L Tree-1) for two years. The experiment was carried out as factorial in a randomized complete block design in Manjil region, Guilan province. Results showed that, OMW application especially in high levels increased organic carbon, microbial respiration, microbial biomass carbon and soil dehydrogenase enzyme activity in soil and it has a positive effect on the fruit yield. Also, it improved the quality of olive oil in terms of free fatty acids and peroxide value in olive oil, but not effect on the oil percent in dry matter. Biological characteristics in soil were different under two cultivars cultivation. Also, there was a significant difference between two cultivars in oil quality characteristics. Quality characteristics were in the range of virgin and extra­ virgin olive oil, in both cultivars under treated with OMW.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Organic carbon
  • microbial respiration
  • peroxide value
  • roughani
  • Zard
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