برآورد نیاز سرمایی و گرمایی جوانه‌های گل سه رقم تجاری زردآلو با استفاده از مدل‌های مختلف

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق دکتری، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

2 استاد، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

چکیده

برآورد نیاز سرمایی و گرمایی جوانه­های گل درختان میوه و پیش­بینی زمان گلدهی برای انتخاب رقم مناسب برای یک منطقه و پیشگیری از سرمازدگی دیررس بهاره ضروری است. بدین منظور نیاز سرمایی و گرمایی سه رقم تجاری زردآلو با نام­های نوری، شاهرودی و نصیری در شرایط آب و هوایی کرج در سال­های 1388 تا 1392 با استفاده از مدل­های سرمایی (مدل یوتا، دینامیکی و ساعت‌های سرمایی) و مدل گرمایی آندرسون برآورد شد. آزمایش در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی اجرا شد. بنا بر نتایج، محدودۀ نیاز سرمایی رقم نوری 1100-951 واحد سرمایی، 53-41 بخش سرمایی و 888-696 ساعت سرمایی، رقم شاهرودی 1400-5/1093 واحد سرمایی، 63-58 بخش سرمایی و 1100-945 ساعت سرمایی و رقم نصیری 1286-1071 واحد سرمایی، 63-47 بخش سرمایی و 1008-768 ساعت سرمایی برآورد شد. نیاز گرمایی رقم‌های نوری، شاهرودی و نصیری به ترتیب معادل 5/4216-5/3964، 3587-3140 و 7/4859-7/4477 ساعت درجۀ رشد برآورد شد. مدل دینامیکی نسبت به دو مدل یوتا و ساعت‌های سرمایی همگونی بیشتری در محاسبۀ نیاز سرمایی داشت به‌طوری‌که کمترین درصد تغییرپذیری در سال­های مختلف با مدل دینامیک ایجاد شد. همبستگی نیاز سرمایی با نیاز گرمایی منفی و بالا (54/0- r =) بود. ارتباط بین نیاز سرمایی و تاریخ گلدهی مثبت و همبستگی بالا (51/0 r =) داشت. اما ارتباط بین نیاز گرمایی و تاریخ گلدهی بسیار پایین و همبستگی کم داشت. با توجه به نتایج، نیاز سرمایی عامل مؤثرتری نسبت به نیاز گرمایی در تغییر تاریخ گلدهی رقم‌های زردآلو در شرایط آب و هوایی کرج است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of chilling and heat requirements of flower buds in three commercial apricot cultivars by using different models

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Nekounam 1
  • Mohammadreza Fattahi Moghaddam 2
  • Zabih-ollah Zamani 2
1 Former Ph.D. Student, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Professor, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Estimating chilling and heat requirement of flower buds in fruit trees is important due to predicting flowering time for approporiate site selection to escape spring frost damage. In this serearch, chilling and heat requirements of three apricot cultivars (namely ‘Noori’, ‘Nasiri’ and ‘Shahroodi’) were estimated by chilling models (Chilling Hours, Utah and Dynamic) and Anderson heat model during 4 years (2009 to 2013) under Karaj climate condition. Based on different chilling models estimations, chilling requirements in apricot cultivars were estimated about 951-1100 chilling units, 41-53 chilling portion and 696-888 chilling hours in 'Noori', 1071-1286 chilling units, 47-63 chilling portion and 768-1008 chilling hours in 'Nasiri' and 1093.5-1400 chilling units, 58-63 chilling portion and 945-1100 chilling hours in 'Shahroodi'. Heat requirements for flowering in ‘Noori’, ‘Shahroodi’ and ‘Nasiri’ were estimated about 3964.5-4216.5, 3140-3587 and 4477.7-4859.7 growing degree-hours (GDH), respectively. Based on the results, the Dynamic model was more homogeneous rather than the Utah and Chilling Hour models in different years with showing lower coefficient of variation (4.95%) among different years. Results showed a high positive correlation between chilling requirement and flowering date, but negative correlation found between chilling and heat requirements. According to results, chilling requirement is an affective factor on change of flowering date in comparison to heat requirement in apricot cultivars under Karaj condition.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chilling Hour model
  • dormancy
  • dynamic model
  • Flowering
  • Utah model
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