تأثیر تغذیۀ آهن و نیتروژن بر شاخص‌های کیفی میوۀ سیب (Malus domestica cv.Fuji) طی انبارمانی و درصد برخی عنصرهای کانی برگ و میوه

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق دکتری، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

2 استاد، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

3 دانشیار، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

چکیده

در این تحقیق تأثیر تغذیۀ آهن و نیتروژن، در سه سطح (کلات آهن با غلظت‌های 0، 5 و 10 قسمت در میلیون (پی‌پی‌ام) و نیترات آمونیوم با غلظت‌های 0، 40 و 60 قسمت در میلیون) بر درصد عنصرهای نیتروژن، پتاسیم و فسفر برگ و میوه در زمان برداشت و برخی از ویژگی‌های کیفی محصول سیب رقم فوجی طی انبارمانی بررسی شد. بنابر نتایج این پژوهش، سطوح نیتروژن استفاده‌شده تأثیر معنی‌داری بر صفات کمی و کیفی میوه نداشت و تنها میزان ویتامین ث میوه را به‌طور معنی‌داری افزایش داد. سطوح آهن به‌کار برده شده به‌طور معنی‌داری درصد کاهش وزن میوه در دورۀ انبارمانی را کاهش داد. تأثیر انبارمانی بر برخی از شاخص‌های کیفی میوه معنی‌دار بود و منجر به کاهش کیفیت شد به‌طوری‌که این افت کیفیت از 95 روز انبارمانی به بعد ملموس‌تر بود. میزان ویتامین ث، سفتی بافت، وزن خشک و اسیدهای آلی (اسیدیته) میوه در مدت انبارمانی کاهش معنی‌داری داشت. تیمار نیتروژن سبب افزایش معنی‌دار محتوای نیتروژن برگ و میوه شد، اما پتاسیم برگ و میوه را کاهش داد. تأثیر تیمار آهن بر میزان این سه عنصر در برگ و میوه معنی‌دار نبود و تنها پتاسیم میوه را به‌طور معنی‌داری کاهش داد. به‌طورکلی نتایج این تحقیق نشان‌دهندۀ نگهداری سه‌ماهۀ این رقم بدون کاهش کیفیت است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Iron and Nitrogen nutrition on apple fruit (Malus domestica cv.Fuji) quality during storage and on mineral contents in fruits and leaves

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mina Mohebi 1
  • Mesbah Babalar 2
  • Mohammad Ali Askary Sarcheshme 3
  • Alireza Talaee 2
1 Former Ph.D. Student, Professor and Associate Professor, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Professor and Associate Professor, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Associate Professor, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

In this research, effects of iron and nitrogen nutrition in three concentration (Iron chelate 0, 5 and 10 ppm and Ammonium nitrate, 0, 40 and 60 ppm) were evaluated on nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous contents in fruits and leaves of apple (cv. Fuji) in harvesting time and on fruit quality during storage. The experiment was carried out using a factorial completely randomized block design (CRBD) with three replications in 2013. Results showed that nitrogen treatment had no significant effect on fruit quality, except Vitamin C content that significantly increased. Iron nutrition mainly decreased the fruit weight loss during the storage. Storage time affected fruit quality and decreased that, which after 95 days, fruit were more injured. During the storage, Vitamin C, fruit firmness, dry weight and total acid were decreased. Nitrogen nutrition increased the nitrogen content in fruits and leaves but decreased potassium level in these organs. Iron treatment had no significant effects on nitrogen and phosphorous contents but significantly decreased potassium content in fruits. These results indicated that, storage of Fuji cultivar for three month had no reducing effects on quality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ammonium nitrate
  • Apple
  • Iron chelate
  • Mineral nutrition
  • storage
  1. Aboutalebi, A. & Hassanzadeh, H. (2013). Effects of iron and zinc on sweet Lime (Citrus limmetta) fruit quantity and quality in calcareous soil. Scientia, 3(1), 13-15.
  2. Álvarez-Fernández, A., Paniagua, P., Abadía, J. & Abadía, A. (2003). Effects of Fe deficiency chlorosis on yield and fruit quality in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(19), 5738-5744.
  3. Amiri, M. E., Fallahi, E. & Golchin, A. (2008). Influence of foliar and ground fertilization on yield, fruit quality, and soil, leaf, and fruit mineral nutrients in apple. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 31(3), 515-525.
  4. Babalar, M. & Pirmoradian, M. (2008). Trees fruit nutrition. (3rd ed.). University of Tehran Press.
  5. Babalar, M., Mohebi, M., Askary, M. & Talaei, A. (2015). Effect of iron and nitrogen application on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of apple “cv. Fuji”. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 46(3), 399-407.
  6. Beavers, W., Sams, C., Conway, W. & Brown, G. (1994). Calcium source affects calcium content, firmness, and degree of injury of apples during storage. HortScience, 29(12), 1520-1523.
  7. Watkins, C. P., Erkan, M. & Nock, F. J. (2005). Harvest date effects on maturity, quality and storage disorders of ‘Honeyscris’ apples. Hort Science, 40, 164-169.
  8. Davies, J. N. & Winsor, G. W. (2006). Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and liming on the composition of tomato fruit. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 18(10), 459-466.
  9. Drake, S., Raese, J. & Smith, T. (2002). Time of nitrogen application and its influence on Golden Delicious Apple yield and fruit quality. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 25(1), 143-157.
  10. El-Jendoubi, H., Vázquez, S., Calatayud, Á., Vavpetič, P., Vogel-Mikuš, K., Pelicon, P. & Morales, F. (2014). The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics. Frontiers in plant science, 5(2), 523- 539.
  11. Erdal, I., Kepenek, K. & Kizilgol, I. (2009). Effect of foliar iron applications at different growth stages on iron and some nutrient concentrations in strawberry cultivars. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 28(6), 421-427.
  12. Ernani, P. R. (2008). Química do solo e disponibilidade de nutrientes às plantas. Journal of Lages, 229p. (in France)
  13. Echeverria, G., Fuentes, T., Graell, J., Lara, I. & López, M. L. (2004). Aroma volatile compounds of ‘Fuji’ apples in relation to harvest date and cold storage technology a comparison of two seasons. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 32, 29-44.
  14. Fallahi, E., Fallahi, B. & Seyedbagheri. M. M. (2006). Influence of humic substances and nitrogen on yield, fruit quality, and leaf mineral elements of ‘Early Spur Rome ’apple. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 29(10), 1819-1833.
  15. Fallahi, E. & Simons, B. R. (1996). Interrelations among leaf and fruit mineral nutrients and fruit quality in 'Delicious' apples. Journal of Tree Fruit Production, 1(1), 15-25.
  16. Farzane, N. & Golchin, A. (2011). Effect of Bor and Nitrogen on growth and some mineral content of Tomato. Journal of Greenhouse Culture Science and Technology, 1(2), 19-29.
  17. Garcia, J., Doyon, G., Salaar- Garcia, S., Ricardo Goenaga, R. & Duran, J. L. (2010). Effect of harvest date and ripening degree on quality and shelf life of Hass avocado in Mexico. Edition Diffusion Presse Sciences, 65, 367- 375.
  18. Ghafir, S. A., Gadalla, S. O., Murajei, B. N. & El-Nady, M. F. (2009). Physiological and anatomical comparison between four different apple cultivars under cold-storage conditions. African Journal of Plant Science, 3, 133-138.
  19. Hsu, H. & Ashmead, H. (1984). Effect of urea and ammonium nitrate on the uptake of iron through leaves. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 7(1-5), 291-299.
  20. Jan, I., Rab, A. & Sajid, M. (2012). Storage performance of apple cultivars harvested at different stages of maturity. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 22, 438-447.
  21. Kader, A. & Barrett, D. (1996). Classification, composition of fruits, and postharvest maintenance of quality.  Science and Technology, 1, 1-24.
  22. Kader, A. A. (2002). Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops (3rd Edition). UCANR Publications.
  23. Kamiloglu, O. (2011). Influence of some cultural practices on yield, fruit quality and individual anthocyanins of table grape cv. ‘Horoz Karasi’. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 21(2), 240-245.
  24. Kühn, B. F., Bertelsen, M. & Sørensen, L. (2011). Optimising quality-parameters of apple cv. ‘Pigeon’ by adjustment of nitrogen. Scientia Horticulturae, 129(3), 369-375.
  25. Lata, B. & Przeradzka, M. (2002). Changes of antioxidant content in fruit peel and flesh of selected apple cultivars during storage. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research, 10, 5-13.
  26. Lima, M. A. C. D., Bassoi, L. H., Silva, D. J., Santos, P. D. S., Paes, P. D. C., Ribeiro, P. R. d. A. & Dantas, B. F. (2008). Effects of levels of nitrogen and potassium on yield and fruit maturation of irrigated guava trees in the São Francisco Valley. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 30(1), 246-250.
  27. Lyon, C., Beeson, K. & Ellis, G. (1943). Effects of micro-nutrient deficiencies on growth and vitamin content of the tomato. Botanical Gazette, 495-514.
  28. Malakuti, M. & Tabatabaei, J. (2010). Fruit Tree Nutriation in Irans Alkaly Soils (Translation of David Read Book). Sana Publication.
  29. Marandi, R. (2009). Postharvest Physiology (Handling and storage of fruits, vegetables, ornamental plants and medicinal herbs). (1st ed.). Jahad Daneshgahi Azarbaijan Gharbi.
  30. Mashaiekh, M. & Rajaee, P. (2013). Storage and Coldroom. Vocational Publication.
  31. Ough, C. & Amerine, M. (1988). Phenolic compounds. Methods for analysis of Musts and Wines, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA.
  32. Pérez-Ramırez, J., Mul, G., Kapteijn, F., Moulijn, J., Overweg, A., Doménech, A. & Arends, I. (2002). Physicochemical characterization of isomorphously substituted FeZSM-5 during activation. Journal of Catalysis, 207(1), 113-126.
  33. Pestana, M., David, M., De Varennes, A., Abadía, J. & Faria, E. A. (2001). Responses of 'Newhall' orange trees to iron deficiency in hydroponics: Effects on leaf chlorophyll, photosynthetic efficiency, and root ferric chelate reductase activity. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 24(10), 1609-1620.
  34. Raese, J. T. & Drake, S. (1997). Nitrogen fertilization and elemental composition affects fruit quality of ‘Fuji’apples. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 20(12), 1797-1809.
  35. Raese, J. T. & Parish, C. L. (1984). Mineral analysis and performance of chlorotic pear trees sprayed or injected with iron. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 7(1-5), 243-249.
  36. Rahemi, M. (2006). An Introduction to the Physiology & Handling of Fruit, Vegetables & Ornamentals. (6th ed). Shiraz University.
  37. Schulte, E. (1992). Soil and Applied Iron. University of Wisconsin--Extension.
  38. Tabatabaei, J. (2010). Plants Mineral Nutrition. (1st ed). Tabriz University.
  39. Taiz, L. & Zeiger, E. (1998). A book of Plant Physiology. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Publishers, Sunderland, Massachusetts.