فعالیت آنزیم فریک کیلیت ردوکتاز ریشۀ روشی برای ارزیابی تحمل به سبزروی ناشی از کمبود آهن در پایه‌های سیب (Malus domestica Borkh.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق دکتری، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

2 مربی، بخش تحقیقات گیاهان زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اصفهان

3 دانشیار، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

4 دانشیار، مؤسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، کرج

5 استادیار، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اصفهان

چکیده

به‌منظور ارزیابی دقیق تحمل به تنش کمبود آهن برخی از پایه­های رویشی سیب، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل بر پایۀ طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با هجده تیمار و سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل پایه در شش سطح (M9، M26، M7،M25 ، MM106، MM111) و آهن در سه سطح (محلول غذایی نصف غلظت هوگلند به‌عنوان شاهد، هوگلند بدون آهن، هوگلند افزون بر بی‌کربنات) انتخاب شدند. پایه‌های رویشی سیب در گلدان­های20 لیتری حاوی پرلیت کشت شدند. به مدت دو ماه و نیم با محلول غذایی نصف غلظت هوگلند تغذیه شدند سپس تیمارهای بالا به مدت 8 هفته روی نهال­ها اعمال شد. pH زهکش،فعالیت آنزیم فریک کیلیت ردوکتاز ریشه، رشد شاخه، وزن تر و خشک برگ و ریشه، تورم ریشه‌های موئین، سبزینۀ (کلروفیل) کل برگ، غلظت آهن برگ و ریشه اندازه‌گیری شد. بنابر نتایج به‌دست‌آمده پایه‌های M9، M7 و M25 در مقایسه با پایه‌های M26،MM106 و MM111 میزان سبزروی (کلروزیس) برگ کمتری نشان دادند. میزان فعالیت آنزیم فریک کیلیت ردوکتاز تحت تأثیر تیمار 2 میکرو مول در لیتر آهن در پایه‌های M9، M7 و M25 از دیگر پایه‌ها بیشتر بود، افزون بر فعالیت بیشتر FCR پایه‌های M9، M7 و M25، آن‌ها تأثیر بیشتری در کاهش pH در محیط فراریشه (ریزوسفر) نسبت به سه پایۀ دیگر داشته‌اند. شاخص زیست‌توده (بیوماس) یعنی نسبت وزن خشک ریشه به وزن خشک شاخه در پایه‌های M9، M7 و M25 میزان‌های بیشتری را نشان دادند. بنابر نتایج این آزمایش به دلیل وجود همبستگی معنی‌دار بین روش اندازه‌گیری FCR با ریشه­های جداشده و شاخص‌های سبزینگی برگ، کاهشpH ریزوسفر و زیست‌توده این روش، روش مناسبی برای غربالگری پایه­های سیب متحمل به سبزروی ناشی از کمبود آهن نسبت به روش اندازه‌گیری FCR با ریشه­های متصل به گیاه کامل است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Ferric chelate reductase activity as screening index for selecting iron chlorosis resistance of Apple rootstocks

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Pirmoradian 1 2
  • Lotfali Naseri 3
  • Hamid Abdollahi 4
  • Ali Asghar Shahabi 5
1 Former Ph.D. Student, Urumieh University | Instructor, Department of Horticultural Crop Resaerch, Isfshan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Isfahan, Iran
2 Former Ph.D. Student, Urumieh University | Instructor, Department of Horticultural Crop Resaerch, Isfshan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Isfahan, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Horticultural Sciences Institute, AREEO, Iran
5 Assistant Professor, Isfshan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

For precise evaluation of the sensitivity of some apple rootstocks to iron stress, an study with a factoreal approach was established based on a complete randomized design with 18 treatments and three replications. Experimental treatments included rootstocks in 6 levels (M9, M26, M7, M25, MM106, MM111) and iron was chosen in three levels(Half strength Hoagland solution as control, Half strength Hoagland without iron, Half strength Hoagland with Bicarbonate). Apple rootstocks were planted in 20 liter pots containing Perlite. Before beginning the experiment, the pots were supplied with half strength Hoagland solution for 2.5 months. After this period, the abovementioned treatments were applied on the rootstocks. Drainage pH was measured 5 times during the experiment. Root ferric chelate reductase activity (FCR) in separated roots and in the intact plant with connected roots was calculated. Then, plants were separated into shoots and roots in the laboratory. Ferric chelate reductase activity, shoot growth, dry and fresh weight of leaf and root, swelling of root tip, leaf chlorophyll (Chl) concentration and iron concentration of leaf and root were also measured. According to the achieved results, M9, M7 and M25 rootstocks in comparison with M26, MM106 and MM111, showed lower leaf chlorosis. Root Ferric chelate reductase activity for M9, M7 and M25 rootstocks treated with 2µM Fe was higher than other rootstocks. The rootstock M9 in this treatment increased 4.3 times in comparison to the control and the MM106 rootstock in 10 mM sodium bicarbonate treatment had the lowest FCR activity compared to the control.  In addition to the FCR increase in M9, M7 and M25 rootstocks, they had more effect in the rhizosphere  pH decrease than other rootstocks. Biomass indicator (root/shoot dry weight) in rootstocks of M9, M7 and M25 showed larger values. According to the result of this experiment, due to meaningful correlation between the measurement method of FCR with excised roots and chlorophyll index, this method is a suitable approach for screening of apple rootstocks with iron chlorosis in comparison with FCR measurement with intact plant.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Iron Chlorosis
  • rootstocks screening
  • rhizospher pH
Alcantara, E., Romera, F. J., Canete, M. & Guardia, M. D. (2000). Effects of bicarbonate and iron supply on Fe(III) reducing capacity of roots and leaf chlorosis of Fe susceptible peach rootstock ‘Nemaguard’. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 23, 1607-1617.
Asadi, K., Akhgaghi, A. N. & Samar, M. (2015) Chlorosis index and active iron for evaluating of citrus rootstocks rsistance to soil limes. Iranian Journal of Soil Research, 3, 269-284.
Campbell, R. J.  Mobley, K.N. Marini, R. P. & Pfeiffer, D. G.  (1990). Growing Conditions Alter the Relationship between SPAD-501 Values and Apple Leaf Chlorophyll. HortScience, 25(3), 330-331.
Chouliaras, V., Dimassi, K., Therios, I., Molassiotis, A. & Diamantidis, G. (2004). Root-reducing capacity, rhizosphere acidification, peroxidase and catalase activities and nutrient levels of Citrus taiwanica and C. volkameriana seedlings, under Fe deprivation conditions. Agronomie, 24, 1-61.
Chunhui, Ma., Tanabe, K., Itai, A., Tamura, F., Pil, C. J. & Teng, Y. (2005). Tolerance to lime-induced of Asian pear rootstocks (Pyrus spp.) Journal of. Japan Society for Horticultural Science, 74(6), 419-423.
Crowley, D. E., Wang, Y. C., Reid, C. P. & Szaniszlo, P. J. (1991). Siderophore-iron uptake mechanisms by microorganisms and plants. Plant Soil, 130, 179-198.
Donnini, S., Castagna, A., Ranieri, A. & Zocchi, G. (2009). Differential responses in pear and quince genotypes induced by Fe deficiency and bicarbonate. Journal of PlantPhysiology, 166, 1181-1193.
Elena, B., Gonzalez, G., Morales, F., Cistue, L., Abadıa, A. & Abadıa, A. (2000). Iron deficiency decreases the Fe(III)-chelate reducing activity of leaf protoplasts. Plant Physiology, 122, 337-344.
Fox, T. C. & Guerinot, M. L. (1998). Molecular biology of cation transport in plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology &Plant Mollecular Biology, 49, 669-696.
Gogorcena, Y., Abadia, J.  & Abadia, A. (2000). Induction of in vivo root ferric chelate reductase activity in fruit tree rootstock. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 23(1), 9-21.
Gogorcena, Y., Abadia, J. & Abadia, A. (2004). A new technique for screening iron-efficient genotypes in peach rootstocks: elicitation of root ferric chelate reductase by manipulation of external iron concentrations. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 27, 1-15.
Gonzalo, M. J., Moreno, M. A. & Gogorcena, Y. (2011). Physiological responses and differential gene expression in Prunus rootstocks under iron deficiency conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology, 168(9), 887-93.
Han, Z. H., Wang, Q. & Chen, L. (1996). Root and Rhizosphere Responses of Iron-Efficient or -Inefficient Apple Genotypes to Solution pH. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 20(11), 1517-1525.
Hell, R. & Stephan, U.W. (2003) Iron uptake, trafficking and homeostasis in plants. Planta, 216, 541-551.
Jimenez, S., Pinochet, J., Abadía, A., Moreno, M. A. & Gogorcena, Y. (2008). Tolerance response to iron chlorosis of Prunus selections as rootstocks. HortScience, 43, 304-309.
Iturbe-Ormaexte, I., Moran, J. F., Arrese-Igor, C., Cogorcena, Y., Klucas, R. V. & Becana, M. (1995). Activated oxygen and antioxidant defenses in iron deficient pea plants.  Plant Cell Environment, 18, 421-9.
Kenndy, A. T., Rowe, P. W. & Samule, T. J. (1980). The effect of apple rootstock genotypes on mineral content of Scion leaves. Euphytica, 29, 497-482.
Kosegarten, H. & Koyro, H. W. (2001). Apoplastic accumulation of iron in the epidermis of maize (Zea mays) roots grown in calcareous soil. Physiology of Plant, 113, 515-22.
Landsberg, E. C. (1996). Hormonal regulation of iron-stress response in sunflower roots: a morphological and cytological investigation. Protoplasma, 194, 69-80.
Lindsay, W. L. & Schwab, A. P. (1982). The chemistry of iron in soil and its availability to plant. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 5, 821-840.
Lucena, J. J. (1998). Effects of bicarbonate, nitrate and other environmental factors on iron deficiency chlorosis. A review, Journal of Plant Nutrition, 23, 1591-1606.
Marschner, H., Kirkby, E. A. & Cakmak, I. (1996). Effect of mineral nutritional status on shoot-root partitioning of photoassimilates and cycling of mineral nutrients. Journal of Experimental. Botany. 47, 1255-1263.
Masucci, J. D. & Schiefelbein, J. W. (1994).The rhd6 mutation of Arabidopsis thaliana alters root-hair initiation through an auxin- and ethylene-associated process. Plant Physiology, 106, 1335-1346.
Marschner, P. (2012). Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Elsevier Ltd. pp. 978.
Marquard, R. D. & Tipton, J. L. (1987). Relationship between extractable chlorophyll and an in situ method to estimate leaf greenness. Hort Science, 22, 1327.
McDonald, A. S., Ericsson, T. & Larsson, C. (1996). Plant nutrition, dry matter gain and partitioning at the wholeplant level. Journal of Experimental Botany, 47, 1245-1253.
Mengel, K. (1994). Iron availability in plant tissues-iron chlorosis on calcareous soils. Plant Soil, 165, 275-283.
Mirabdolbaghi, M. (2007). Study the effect of lime on decreasing leaf nutrient and lime-induced chlorosis on apple clonal rootstocks. Final Report. Horticultural Science Dep. (in Farsi)
Mohammadi, S. Baninasab, B, Khoshgoftarmanesh, A., & Gasemi, A. (2014). Responses of clonal quince rootstocks to Iron. In:Proceedings of 8th Iranian Horticultural Science, 26-29 Aug, Bu Ali University, Hamedan, Iran, pp. 245-252. (in Farsi)
Molassiotis, A., Georgia, T., Grigorios, D., Patakas, A. & Therios, I. (2006). Effects of 4-month Fe deficiency exposure on Fe reduction mechanism, photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and antioxidant defense in two peach rootstocks differing in Fe deficiency tolerance. Journal of Plant Physiology, 163, 176-185.
Morales, F., Grasa, R., Abadia, A. & Abadia, J. (1998). Iron chlorosis paradox in fruit trees. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 21, 815-825.
Moog, P. R. & Bruggemann, W. (1994). Iron reductase systems on the plasma membrane – a review. Plant Soil, 165, 241-60.
Nye, P. H. & Tinker, P. B. (1977). Solute movement in the soil-root system. Blackell, oxford, UK.
Pestana, M., Varennes, A., Abad, J. & Faria, E. (2005). Differential tolerance to iron deficiency of citrus rootstocks grown in nutrient solution. Scientia Horticulturae, 104, 25-36.
Prado, R. M. & Alcantara, E. (2011). Tolerance to iron chlorosis in non-grafted quince seedlings and in pear grafted on to quince plants. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 11(4), 119-128.
Ranieri, A., Castagna, A., Baldan, B. & Soldatini, G. F. (2001). Iron deficiency differently affects peroxidase isoforms in sunflower. Journal of Experimental Botany, 52, 25-35.
Robertson, G. A. & Loughman, B. C. (1974). Response to boron de®ciency: a comparison with responses produced by chemical methods of retarding root elongation. New Phytologist, 73, 821-832.
Rombola, A. D., Bruggemann, W., Lopez-Millan, A. F., Tagliavini, M., Abadia, J., Marangoni, B. & Moog, P. R. (2002). Biochemical responses to iron deficiency in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa). Tree Physiology, 22, 869-875.
Rombola, A. D., Bruggemann, W., Lopez, A. F., Tagliavini, M., Abadia, J., Marangoni, B. & Moog, P. R. (2002). Biochemical responses to iron deficiency in kiwifruit (Actinidiadeliciosa). Tree Physiology, 22, 869-875.
Romera, F. J., Alcantara, E. & Guardia, M. D. (1991). Characterization of the tolerance to iron chlorosis in different peach rootstocks grown in nutrient solution. II. Iron stress response mechanisms. Plant Soil, 130, 120-124.
Romheld, V. (2000). The chlorosis paradox: Fe inactivation as a secondary event in chlorotic leaves of grapevine. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 23, 1629-43.
Romheld, V. & Marschner, H. (1986). Mobilization of iron in the rhizosphere of different plant species. Advance in Plant Nutrition, 2, 155-204.
Romheld, V. & Marschner, H. (1981). Iron-deficiency-stress induced morphological and physiological changes in root tips of sunflower. Physiologia Plantarum, 53, 354-360.
Schenkeveld, W.C. (2010) Iron fertilization with FeEDDHA The fate and effectiveness of FeEDDHA chelates in soil-plant systems. Ph.D. Thesis, Wageningen University.
Schmidt, W. (2003). Iron solutions: acquisition strategies and signaling pathways in plants. Trends Plant Science, 8, 188-93.
Snell, F. D., Snell, C. T. & Snell, C. A. (1959). Colorometric methods of analysis. V. 2A. Van Nostrand.
Susin, S., Abadia, A., Antonio, G. R., Lucena, J. J. & Abadia, J. (1996). The pH requirement for in Vivo Activity of the Iron-Deficiency-lnduced “Turbo” Ferric Chelate Reductase. Plant Physiology, 11, 1-123.
Socias, I., Company, R., Aparisi, G. & Felipe, A. J. (1995). A genetical approach to iron chlorosis in deciduous fruit trees. Iron Nutrition in Soils and Plants. (pp. 167–174) Kluwer Academic Publishers. Netherland.
Tanimoto, M., Roberts, K. & Dolan, L. (1995). Ethylene is a positive regulator of root hair development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Journal, 8, 943-948.
Tagliavini, M. & Rombolà, A. D. (2001). Iron deficiency and chlorosis in orchard and vineyard ecosystems. European. Journal of Agronomy, 15, 71-92.
Tagliavini, M., Rombola, A. D. & Marangoni, B. (1995). Response to iron-deficiency stress of pear and quince genotypes. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 18(11), 2465-2482.
Thomas, E., Marler, R. C. & Andrea, L. B. (2002). Iron Deficiency Induced Changes in Iron Reductase Activity in Papaya Roots. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Sciences, 127(2), 184-187.
Yadava, U. L. (1986). A rapid nondestructive method to determine chlorophyll in intact leaves. HortScience, 21, 1449-1450.
Yi, Y. & Guerinot, M. L. (1996) Genetic evidence that induction of root Fe(III) chelate reductase activity is necessary for iron uptake under iron deficiency. Plant Journal, 10(5), 835-44.
Viti, R. & Cinelli, F. (1993). Lime-induced chlorosis in quince rootstocks: methodological and physiological aspects. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 16(4), 631-641.
Vizzotto, G., Matosevic, I., Pinton, R., Varanini, Z. & Costa, G. (1997). Iron deficiency responses in roots of kiwi. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 20, 327-334.
Wei, L. C., Loeppert, R. H. & Ocumpaugh, W. R. (1997). Fe-deficiency stress response in Fe-deficiency resistant and susceptible subterranean clover: importance of induced H+ release. Journal of Experimental Botany, 48, 239-246.
Welch, R. M., Norvell, W. A., Schaefer, S. C., Shaff, J. E. & Kochian, L. V. (1993).Induction of iron (III) and copper(II) reduction in pea (Pisum satinum L.) roots by Fe and Cu status: Does the root-cell plasmalemma Fe(III)-chelate reductase perform a general role in regulating cation uptake? Planta, 190, 555-61.
Zhang, L., Zhai, H. & Zhang, X. J. (2002) Screening of Fe-efficient Apple Rootstock Genotypes. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 17(4), 579-592.