تأثیر کمپوست پسماند جامد کارخانۀ روغن‌کشی زیتون بر درصد و کیفیت روغن‌زیتون رقم‌های ’زردʻ و ’روغنیʻ در منطقۀ منجیل

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق دکتری، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 استادیار، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه جیرفت، کرمان، ایران

3 دانشیار، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

چکیده

 پسماند‌ کارخانه‌های روغن‌کشی زیتون غنی از مواد آلی و عنصرهای غذایی است، که می‌توان از آن برای بهبود حاصل‌خیزی خاک پس از کمپوست‌سازی استفاده و مشکل بازیافت آن را نیز حل کرد. بدین منظور، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در سال‌های 1392 تا 1394 در منطقۀ منجیل انجام گرفت. تیمارها شامل سطوح مختلف کمپوست تفالۀ زیتون (12، 24 و 36 کیلوگرم به ازای هر درخت به همراه 15 کیلوگرم کود دامی به‌عنوان شاهد) که روی دو رقم زیتون ’زردʻ و ’روغنیʻ بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد، بین سطوح مختلف کمپوست و شاهد از نظر درصد روغن اختلاف معنی‌داری در سال اول وجود نداشت، اما در سال دوم درختانی که با 36 کیلوگرم کمپوست تیمار شدند، با افزایش 71/5 درصد روغن، اختلاف معنی‌داری نسبت به شاهد نشان دادند. بین سطوح مختلف کمپوست و شاهد تفاوت معنی‌داری از نظر اسیدهای چرب آزاد و جذب در طول‌موج‌های فرابنفش (K232 و K270) روغن در هر دو سال وجود نداشت. در سال دوم، درختانی که با 24 و 36 کیلوگرم کمپوست تیمار شدند از نظر ارزش پراکسید کیفیت بهتری (میزان کمتری) نسبت به دیگر تیمارها داشتند. در سال دوم کیفیت روغن از نظر میزان فلاونوئید، درختانی که با کمپوست تیمار شدند با اختلاف معنی‌دار بهتر از شاهد بود. هرچند، در این سال میزان سبزینه (کلروفیل) و کاروتنوئید کل روغن در شاهد بالاتر بود، اما نسبت سبزینه به کاروتنوئید روغن در درختان تیمارشده با کمپوست و شاهد اختلاف معنی‌داری نداشتند. دو رقم زرد و روغنی اختلاف‌های معنی‌داری از نظر اسید چرب آزاد، ارزش پراکسید روغن،  K232و K270، فنل، فلاونوئید، سبزینه و کاروتنوئید کل روغن نشان دادند. به‌طورکلی، کیفیت روغن هر دو رقم زیتون که با کود دامی و یا کمپوست تفالۀ زیتون تیمار شدند در طی دو سال بر پایۀ استانداردهای شورای بین‌المللی روغن‌زیتون در محدودۀ روغن‌زیتون طبیعی فوق ممتاز بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of composted olive mill solid waste on oil percentage and quality of olive oil cvs ‘Zarad’ and ‘Roughany’ on Manjil region

نویسندگان [English]

  • Azam Seyedi 1 2
  • Mahmood Ghasemnezhad 3
  • Yousef Hamidoghli 3
1 Former Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran | Assistnat Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jiroft, Kerman, Iran
2 Former Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran | Assistnat Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jiroft, Kerman, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Olive mill solid waste is enriched from organic matter and mineral nutrient elements, which can be used after compostation for inproving soil fertility and solve its disposal problem. For this purpose, a factorial experiment was carried out during 2013 to 2015 in Manjil region. The treaments were different levels of composted olive mill solid (12, 24 and 36 kg per tree and followed by 15 kg per tree rotted sheep manure as a control) which used on two oilve cvs Zard and Roughany. The results showed that there was no significant difference for oil percent between control and different level of compost after first year, but on the second year, olive tree treated with 36 kg compost showed significantly 5.71 oil percent more than other treatments. There was no significant difference between different leveles of compost and control for oil free fatty acids and absorption in the ultraviolet wavelengths (K232 and K270) over two years. In the second year, the trees that had been treated by 24 and 36 kg of compost, had a better oil quality form which peroxide value was less as compered to other treatmentes. On the second year, oil quality from which flavonoid content in olive tree treated with compost was significantly better than control. However, on this year, oil chlorophyll and carotenoid content of coltrol was higher than compost treated tree, but no significant differenec was found between compost treated trees and control for the ratio of oil chlorophyll to carotenoids content. There was a significant difference between two olive cultivars, Roughani and Zard for oil free fatty acid, peroxide value, K232 and K270, phenols, flavonoids, chlorophyll carotenoids. Overall, the oil quality of both olive cultivars which treated with manure and compost was in the range of extra virgin olive oil, based on standards of the International Council of Olive Oil at two years.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • antioxidant capacity
  • Oil percent
  • total phenol
  • total felavonoiedes
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