بررسی کمی و کیفی اسانس کاکوتی ایرانی (Ziziphora persica Bunge) از شش رویشگاه مختلف

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد کرج

2 استاد، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی

چکیده

گیاهZiziphora persica  یا کاکوتی ایرانی، یک گونۀ معطر یک‌ساله از تیرۀ نعناع‌سانان در ایران است که تأثیر ضدمیکروبی قوی دارد. در این تحقیق، سرشاخۀ گل‌دار این گیاه از شش رویشگاه مختلف گرد‌آوری شد. پس از تأیید نام علمی گیاهان در هرباریوم مؤسسۀ تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور (TARI)، در آغاز گیاهان در سایه و دمای محیط خشک شدند. آنگاه اسانس‌گیری از آن‌ها به روش تقطیر با آب انجام و بازدۀ اسانس‌ها محاسبه شد. تجزیۀ اسانس‌ها با استفاده از دستگاه­های GC و GC/MS صورت گرفت. نتایج نشان داد، بازدۀ اسانس بر حسب وزن خشک گیاه از 11/0درصد (در نمونۀ مشکین‌شهر نودوز) تا 39/0درصد (در نمونۀ الموت قزوین) متغیر است. بین 17 تا 26 ترکیب در اسانس نمونه‌های مختلف شناسایی شد. ترکیب عمده در اسانس نمونه‌های گردآوری‌شده از منطقۀ الموت قزوین و خوی، منطقۀ قره‌تپه اسپاتولنول (به ترتیب 7/25درصد و 1/24درصد) بود. ترکیب عمدۀ اسانس نمونۀ گردآوری‌شده از ارومیه بتا-بیسابولن (8/28درصد) بود. ترکیب عمدۀ اسانس دیگر نمونه‌ها اپی-آلفا-مورولول بود که میزان آن در نمونۀ مشکین‌شهر نودوز (8/20درصد) بیشتر از نمونۀ قره‌چمن به‌طرف تبریز (1/17درصد) و میانه، پل‌دختر (4/14درصد) بود. البته سه ترکیب بالا تا حدودی در اسانس همۀ نمونه‌ها موجود بود ولی میزان آن در نمونه‌های مختلف تفاوت زیادی داشت. نتایج تجزیۀ اسانس گونۀ کاکوتی ایرانی از رویشگاه‌های مختلف نشان‌دهندۀ تفاوت اجزای اصلی اسانس این‌گونه با دیگر گونه‌های جنس Ziziphora   است که اغلب پولگون ترکیب عمدۀ تشکیل‌دهندۀ اسانس آن‌هاست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Essential oil content and composition of Ziziphora persica Bunge from different habitats

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeid Sarabi 1
  • Fatemeh Sefidkon 2
1 Former M. Sc. Student, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Iran
2 Professor, Research Institute of Forest and Rangeland, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, I.R. of Iran
چکیده [English]

Ziziphora persica or Iranian kakooti is an annual aromatic plant from Labiatea family that grows wild in Iran and has strong antimicrobial effects. In this research, the aerial parts of this plant were collected at full flowering stage from six habitats. After confirmation of scientific names of the plants by Herbarium of Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands (TARI), the plant materials were dried at shade. The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation, the yields were calculated based on dry weight and the oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Results showed that oil yields varied from 0.11% (Meshkin Shahr, Nodooz) to 0.39% (Alamoot, Ghazvine) for different samples. Seventeen to twenty-six components were identified in the essential oils. The main compound in the essential oil of Alamout and Gharetape samples were spathulenol (25.7% and 24.1%, respectively). The major compound in the oil of Urmieh sample was beta-bisabolene (28.8%). The main compound in others oils was epi-alpha-muurolol that its percentage in the oil of Meshkinshahr sample (20.8%) was higher than Gharechaman (17.1%) and Miyaneh (14.4%). Of course the three above components were found in all oils, but their percentages were completely different. Results of this research showed the oil of Ziziphora persica in Iran is completely different with other species of Ziziphora that contain pulegone as main compound in their oils.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ziziphora persica Bunge
  • spathulenol
  • epi-alpha-muurolol
  • bisabolene
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