واکنش رشد و عملکرد گیاه دارویی استویا (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) به فاصلۀ کاشت و زمان برداشت

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه مهندسی علوم باغبانی و فضای سبز، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه مهندسی علوم باغبانی و فضای سبز، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه فارماکوگنوزی و داروسازی، پژوهشکدۀ گیاهان دارویی جهاد دانشگاهی، تهران، ‌ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر سطوح مختلف فاصلۀ کاشت (20، 25، 30 و 35×50 سانتی‌متر) و زمان برداشت (26 مرداد و 26 شهریورماه) بر ویژگی‌های رشد و عملکرد کمی و کیفی گیاه دارویی استویا (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni)، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقات گروه مهندسی علوم باغبانی و فضای سبز دانشگاه تهران در سال زراعی 93-1392 انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد تأثیر فاصلۀ کاشت بر بیشتر صفات به‌جز ارتفاع گیاه، نسبت وزن برگ به ساقه و میزان سبزینه (کلروفیل)­ها معنی‌دار بود. با کاهش فاصلۀ کاشت از 35×50 به 20×50، وزن خشک اندام‌های هوایی و برگ، عملکرد استویوزید و ربودیوزید A افزایش یافت. همچنین‌، تأثیر زمان برداشت بر همۀ صفات به‌جز میزان سبزینه‌ها معنی‌دار بود. بیشترین ارتفاع گیاه و قطر تاج پوشش،‌ وزن خشک اندام‌های هوایی، عملکرد استویوزید و ربودیوزید A در برداشت 26 شهریور و بیشترین نسبت برگ به ساقه در برداشت 26 مرداد بود. اثر متقابل تنها بر صفت وزن خشک برگ معنی‌دار بود و بیشترین وزن خشک برگ در برداشت 26 شهریور و فاصلۀ کشت 20 و 25×50 به دست آمد. صفت میزان سبزینه‌ها تحت تأثیر هیچ‌یک از تیمارها قرار نگرفت. به‌طورکلی می‌توان گفت فاصلۀ کشت 20 و 25×50 سانتی­متر و برداشت گیاه در 26 شهریورماه نسبت به دیگر تیمارها در منطقۀ مورد بررسی در کرج، نتیجۀ بهتری برای کشت و استقرار استویا داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Response of growth and yield of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) to planting space and harvesting time

نویسندگان [English]

  • Leila Tabrizi 1
  • Alireza Zavvari 2
  • Darab Yazdani 3
1 Assistant Professors, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 M. Sc. Student, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutic, Institute of Medicinal Plants, ACECR, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of harvesting time (17 August and 17 September) and planting space (20, 25, 30 and 35 × 50 cm) on growth criteria, quantitative and qualitative yield of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out in Research Station of Department of Horticultural Science and Landscape Engineering, University of Tehran during years of 2013-2014. Based on results, planting space significantly affected the most measured traits except plant height, leaf to stem ratio and chlorophyll content. By decreasing of planting space from 35×50 to 20×50 cm, fresh and dry weight of the aerial part and leaf and yield of Stevioside and Rebaudioside A were increased. Also, harvesting time significantly affected the measured traits except chlorophyll content in which the highest plant height and diameter, fresh and dry weight of the aerial part and yield of Stevioside and Rebaudioside A were obtained at 17 September. Harvesting at 17 August caused the highest leaf to stem ratio. The interaction effect of planting space and harvesting time significantly affected leaf dry weight in which the highest leaf dry weight obtained by the planting space 20×50 cm and 25×50 cm at 17 September. There was no significant effect on chlorophyll content. In general, based on these results, planting space of 20 and 25 × 50 cm and harvesting time at 17 September compared to other treatments pronounced better for cultivation of Stevia in studied area of Karaj.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Medicinal plant
  • Plant density
  • rebaudioside A
  • stevioside
Basuki, S. (1990). Effects of black plastic mulch and plant density on the growth of weeds and stevia. BIOTROP special publication, 38, 107-1.‏
Bondarev, N., Reshetnyak, O., & Nosov, A. (2001). Peculiarities of diterpenoid steviol glycoside production in in vitro cultures of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Plant Science, 161(1), 155-163.
Bondarev, N. I., Sukhanova, M. A., Reshetnyak, O. V. & Nosov, A. M. (2003). Steviol glycoside content in different organs of Stevia rebaudiana and its dynamics during ontogeny. Biologia Plantarum, 47(2), 261-264.
Brandle, J. F. & Rosa, N. (1992). Heritability for yield, leaf: stem ratio and stevioside content estimated from landrace cultivar of Stevia rebaudiana. Canadian Journal of Plant Sciences, 72, 1263-1266.
Ceunen, S. & Geuns, J. M. C. (2013). Influence of photoperiodism on the spatio-temporal accumulation Theof steviol glycosides in Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni). Plant Science, 198, 72-82.
Danalisio, M., Duarte, F., Pinto, A. & Souza, C. (1982).  Stevia rebaudiana. Agronomics, 34, 64-68.
Ermakov, E. I. & Kochetov, A. A. (1996). Specificities of the growth and development of Stevia, Stevia plants under different controllable light conditions. Russian journal of Agricultural Science, 1, 9-11.
Ezz, A. L. (2009). Plant growth strategies of Thymus vulgaris L. in response to population density. Industrial Crops and Products, 30(3), 389-394.
Forbes, J. C. & Watson, R. D. (1994). Plants in agriculture. Cambridge, Britain. Pp: 72-78.
Ghanbari, A. & Taheri Mazandarani, M. (2002). Effect of planting date and plant density on yield of Pinto Bean. Journal of Plant Seed Science, 19(4), 483-496.
Hemm, M. R., Rider, S. D., Ogas, J., Murry, D. J. & Chapple, C. (2004). Light induces phenylpropanoid metabolism in Arabidopsis roots. Plant Journal, 38, 765-778.
IRIMO. (2014). Islamic Republic of Iran Meteorological Organization.http://www.irimo.ir
Jamshidi, K. H. (1999). The effect of row spacing and plant density on quantitative aspects of chamomile. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3(1), 203-210. (in Farsi)
Jovicich, E., Cantliffe, D. J. & Hochmuth, G. J. (1999). Plant density and shoot pruning on yield and quality of a summer greenhouse sweet pepper crop in North Central Florida. In: Proceedings 28th National Agricultural Plastics Congress (pp. 184-190).
Kalandia, A., Papunidze, G., Vanidze, M. & Papunidze, S. (2004). HPLC of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) diterpene glycosides. Bulletin of the Georgian Academy of Sciences, 169, 147-150.
Kennelly, E. J. (2002). Sweet and non-sweet constituents of Stevia rebaudiana. Stevia, the Genus Stevia (Medical and Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles), 19, 68-85.‏
Kienle, U. (2010). Welches Stevia hätten Sie denn gerne? Anbau und Herstellung–Perspektiven weltweit. Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit, 5(2), 241-250.
Kolb, N., Herrera, J. L., Ferreyra, D. J. & Uliana, R. F. (2001). Analysis of sweet diterpene glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana: Improved HPLC method.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49(10), 4538-4541.
Kumar, R., Sharma, S., Ramesh, K., Prasad, R., Pathania, V. L., Singh, B. & Singh, R. D. (2012). Effect of agro-techniques on the performance of natural sweetener plant–stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) under western Himalayan conditions. Indiana Journal of Agronomy, 57(1), 74-81.
Lee, J. I., Kang, K. H., Park, H. W., Ham, Y. S. & Park, C. H. (1980). Studies on the new sweetening source plant, Stevia rebaudiana in Korea. II. Effects of fertilizer rates and planting density on dry leaf yields and various agronomic characteristics of Stevia rebaudiana. Research Reports of the Office of Rural Development. (Crop Suwon), 2, 138-144.
Madore, M. A. (2000). Synthesis and degradation of diterpene glycosides in source leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni. Journal of Plant Biology, 129.
Megeji, N. W., Kumar, J. K., Singh, V., Kaul, V. K. & Ahuja, P. S. (2005). Introducing Stevia rebaudiana, a natural zero-calorie sweetener. Current science, 88(5), 801-804.
Mekonnen, S. A. & Kassahun, M. B. (2011). Effect of inter row spacing and harvesting time on growth and essential oil yield of Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). International Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3(2), 39-43.
Mizukami, H., Shiba, K., Satoshi, I. & Ohashi, H. (1983). Effect of temperature on growth and stevioside formation of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Japan Journal of Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 37, 175-179.
Mohd-Radzman, N. H., Ismail, W. I. W., Adam, Z., Jaapar, S. S. & Adam, A. (2013). Potential roles of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni in abrogating insulin resistance and diabetes: a review. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 10.
Moraes, R. M., Donega, M. A., Cantrell, C. L., Mello, S. C. & McChesney, J. D. (2013). Effect of harvest timing on leaf production and yield of diterpene glycosides in Stevia rebaudiana Bert: A specialty perennial crop for Mississippi. Industrial Crops and Products, 51, 385-389.
Murayama, S., Kayano, R., Miyazato, K. & Nose, A. (1980). Studies on the cultivation of Stevia rebaudiana: Effects of fertilizer rates, planting density and seedling clones on growth and yield. Science Bulletin of the College of Agriculture, 27, 1-8.
Naghdi Badi, H., Yazdani, D., Mohammad Ali, S. & Nazari, F. (2004). Effects of spacing and harvesting time on herbage yield and quality/quantity of oil in thyme, Thymus vulgaris L. Industrial Crops and Products, 19, 231-236.
Nassar, A. M., Besheit, S. Y. & Allam, A. I. (2001). Effect of sowing dates, harvesting dates and their interaction on yield and quality of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert. (Bertoni)).  Journal of Applied Sciences, 16, 442-459.
Ramesh, K., Singh, V. & Megeji, N. W. (2006). Cultivation of stevia rebaudiana (Bert) Bertoni a comprehensive review. Advance in Agronomy, 89, 137-177.
Serfaty, M., Ibdah, M., Fischer, R., Chaimovitsh, D., Saranga, Y. & Dudai, N. (2013). Dynamics of yield components and stevioside production in Stevia rebaudiana grown under different planting times, plant stands and harvest regime. Industrial Crops and Products, 50, 731-736.
Shivanna, N., Naika, M., Khanum, F. & Kaul, V. K. (2012). Antioxidant, anti-diabetic and renal protective properties of Stevia rebaudiana. Journal of Diabetes and its Com-Plications, 27(2), 103-113.
Tadhani, M. B., Patel, V. H. & Subhash, R. (2007). In vitro antioxidant activities of Stevia rebaudiana leaves and callus. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 20(3), 323-329.
Taleie, N., Hamidoghli, Y., Rabiei, B. & Hamidoghli, S. (2012). Effects of plant density and transplanting date on herbage, stevioside, phenol and flavonoid yield of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences, 4(6), 298-302.
Tavarini, S. & Angelini, L. G. (2013). Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni as a source of bioactive compounds: the effect of harvest time, experimental site and crop age on steviol glycoside content and antioxidant properties. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93(9), 2121-2129.
Woelwer-Rieck, U., Lankes, C., Wawrzun, A. & Wüst, M. (2010). Improved HPLC method for the evaluation of the major steviol glycosides in leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. European Food Research and Technology, 231(4), 581-588.
Yadav, S. K. & Guleria, P. (2012). Steviol glycosides from Stevia: biosynthesis pathway review and their application in foods and medicine. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 52(11), 988-998.