بررسی برخی عامل‌های مؤثر در موفقیت ریزپیوندی در شرایط درون شیشه‌ای شماری از رقم‌های ایرانی پسته (Pistacia vera L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار، پژوهشکدة بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی ایران، کرج، صندوق پستی 1897-31535

چکیده

روش ریزپیوندی در گیاهان چوبی به‌منظور تولید گیاهان بدون بیماری، بازجوان‌سازی (Rejuvenation)، بررسی مؤثرتر سازگاری پایه و پیوندک و افزایش غیرجنسی همسانه (کلون)‌ها استفاده شده است. آزمایش‌هایی با هدف بررسی و انتخاب محیط کشت مناسب پس از انجام ریزپیوندی، تأثیر نوع پایه و پیوندک، مدت‌زمان پس از واکشت (پیوندک) در موفقیت ریزپیوندی و همچنین مقایسة روش ریزپیوندی پسته در شرایط درون شیشه (in vitro) و برون شیشه‌ای (in vivo) انجام شد. برای انجام آزمایش‌ها در شرایط درون شیشه‌ای، در آغاز نسبت به افزایش پایه‌ها و پیوندک‌ها (پایة بادامی زرند و رقم‌های اوحدی، اکبری و احمد آقایی) اقدام ‌شد. برای انجام آزمایش‌های ریزپیوندی در شرایط آزاد (in vivo)، تنها از بذرهای بادامی زرند به‌عنوان پایه استفاده شد. درصد ریزشاخه‌های باززاشده (درصد گرفتن پیوند)، تولید پینه (کالوس) در محل پیوند و شمار برگ مهم‌ترین صفات بررسی شده بودند. نتایج نشان داد که نوع پایه و پیوندک بر میزان موفقیت ریزپیوندی مؤثر است. محیط کشت مناسب برای استقرار پایه‌ها، محیط کشت پایه MS همراه با 2 میلی‌گرم نفتالن استیک اسید، بهترین محیط برای استقرار پایه‌ها پس از ریزپیوندی است و باعث کاهش میزان پینه در محل پیوند و کاهش رشد مریستم (مریستم) جوانه‌های جانبی پایه می‌شود. مدت‌زمان پس از واکشت (پیوندک‌ها) در میزان گیرایی پیوند اثر معنی‌داری نداشت. پیوندک‌های آزاد و کشت بافتی تفاوتی نداشتند و می‌توان از پیوندک‌های کشت بافتی برای پیوند روی پایه‌های بذری استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of several effective factors in the micrografting success rate of some Iranian pistachio varieties Pistacia vera L.

نویسنده [English]

  • Narges Mojtahedi
Assistant Professor, Agriculture Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), Seed and Plant Improvement Institutes Campus, Mahdasht Road, P. O. Box 31535-1897, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Micrografting technique has been used on woody species to produce viruses-free plants, rejuvenation, reinvigoration, analysis of grafting compatibility and incompatibility and clone's propagation. Several experiments have been carried out in order to investigate the most suitable culture media after micrografting, effect of types of rootstocks and scions, effect of time after subculture of scions, and comparison of in vitro and in vivo micrografting techniques for some Iranian pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) varieties. For in vitro micrografting, rootstocks and scions (Badami-Zarand, Owhadi, Akbari, and Ahmadaghaii) were propagated using micropropagtion. For in vivo micrografting experiments, dry nuts of Pistacia vera L. var. Badami-Zarand were used. Percentages of regenerated micro-shoots (Micrografting success percentage), callus production on grafted area and leaf numbers were evaluated after one month. Results showed that types of rootstocks and scions had significant effect on micrografting success percentage. The best culture medium for rootstocks was MS supplemented with 2 mg.L-1 after micrografting in which decreased callus production in grafted area and growth of nodal meristems of rootstocks. The time after subculture of scions had no significant effect on microgftaing success rate. In vitro and in vivo scions had no considerable differences, therefore it is possible to use the in vitro scions on the in vivo rootstocks.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • in vitro
  • micrografting
  • pistachio
  • Rootstock
  • scion
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