تأثیر کم آبیاری بر ویژگی‌های رویشی، عملکرد و کیفیت میوۀ سه رقم زیتون روغنی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

2 دانشیار، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

3 دانشیار، بخش تحقیقات زراعی باغی، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کرمانشاه، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر کم آبیاری بر ویژگی‌های رویشی و زایشی سه رقم زیتون روغنی 14 ساله به نام‌های روغنی، آمفی‌سیس و میشن در ایستگاه پژوهشی زیتون دالاهو سرپل‌ذهاب تحت تأثیر سه رژیم آبیاری در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سال 1393‌ اجرا شد. تیمارهای آبیاری شامل آبیاری به میزان 100 درصد تبخیر و تعرق (شاهد)، آبیاری به میزان 60 درصد نیاز آبی (کم آبیاری مداوم) و کم آبیاری تنظیم شده (60 درصد نیاز آبی به همراه عدم آبیاری در طول مدت سخت شدن هسته و تغییر رنگ میوه) درختان زیتون طی فصل رشد بودند. نتایج نشان داد، تیمار کم آبیاری تنظیم‌شده در مقایسه با تیمار کم آبیاری مداوم در کل فصل باعث افزایش وزن میوه، طول میوه، وزن تر و خشک گوشت، درصد رطوبت میوه، وزن خشک هسته و طول هسته در رقم‌های مختلف زیتون مورد آزمایش شد. از نظر قطر میوه، نسبت وزن خشک گوشت به هسته، درصد گوشت و درصد روغن در مادۀ تر بین رژیم‌های آبیاری تفاوت معنی‌‌داری وجود نداشت. درصد روغن در مادۀ خشک به‌طور معنی‌دار تحت تأثیر تیمارهای آبیاری قرار گرفت، به‌طوری‌که بیشترین درصد روغن در مادۀ خشک (67/37 درصد) در رقم روغنی در کم آبیاری مداوم مشاهده شد. همچنین در این رقم در تیمار کم آبیاری مداوم عملکرد روغن در هکتار در مقایسه با تیمارهای آبیاری کامل و کم آبیاری تنظیم‌شده افزایش یافت. در رقم آمفی‌سیس، عملکرد روغن در تیمار کم آبیاری تنظیم‌شده با تیمار آبیاری کامل اختلاف معنی‌داری نداشت. به‌طورکلی واکنش هر سه رقم به تیمارهای آبیاری متفاوت بود و رقم آمفی‌سیس به‌عنوان رقم برتر تحت تأثیر کم آبیاری تنظیم‌شده معرفی می‌شود. در رقم پر رشد (میشن) تأثیر کاهش آبیاری شدیدتر مشاهده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of deficit irrigation on vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality in three olive oil cultivars

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rahmat Alah Gholami 1
  • Hassan Sarikhani 2
  • Isa Arji 3
1 Ph. D. Student, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Research Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Kermanshah, Agricultural Research, Education and Promotion Organization, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

Current research was carried out to determine the effect of deficit irrigation on vegetative and reproductive characteristics of 14 years old olive oil cultivars named 'Roughani', 'Amphisis' and 'Mission' in Dallaho Olive Research Station of Sarepole Zehab under three irrigation regimes during 2014. Irrigation treatments were included 100 % ETp irrigation (control), deficit irrigation 60 % ETp during the growing season (continuous deficit irrigation) and regulated deficit irrigation (deficit irrigation 60 % ETp during the growing season plus no irrigation during periods of pit hardening and color change). Results indicated lower growth in deficit irrigation treatment. However, higher fruit weight, fruit length, pulp fresh and dry weight, fruit moisture percentage, pit dry weight and pit length were obtained in regulated deficit irrigation treatment in compared to continuous deficit irrigation. There were no significant differences between treatments for pulp/pit dry weight ratio, pulp percentage and dry and oil content in fresh weight. Oil percentage in dry matter was significantly different between irrigation treatments, where the highest oil percentage in dry matter (38.67%) was found in ̒Roughani̕ cultivar under continuous deficit irrigation. Also, this cultivar had the higher oil yield in hectare in comparison to those of 100 % ETp irrigation and regulated deficit irrigation. In ̒Amphesis̕ cultivar, there was no significant difference in oil yield between 100 % ETp and regulated deficit irrigation treatments. Generally, there were different responses between cultivars to irrigation treatment and cv. Amphissis can be introduced as tolerant cultivar under regulated deficit irrigation. Vigorous cultivar (Mission) was more affected under deficit irrigation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fruit quality and quantity characteristics
  • olive
  • Regulated Deficit irrigation
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