بررسی واکنش‌های فیزیولوژیک و سازگاری برخی رقم‌های انگور به گرمای شدید جنوب فارس

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی فارس و دانشجوی دکترای علوم باغبانی دانشگاه شیراز

2 استاد، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز

چکیده

امروزه کشت انگور در مناطق نیمه گرم استان فارس توسعه‌یافته است، اما تنش گرمایی به‌عنوان یک محدودیت مهم برای موفقیت کشت و کار انگور در این مناطق مطرح است. این پژوهش با هدف دستیابی به رقم یا رقم‌های متحمل به تنش گرمایی در موستان روی تاک‌های سه‌سالۀ رقم‌های رطبی، عسکری، منقا و فلیم­سیدلس در منطقۀ نیمه گرمسیر قیر ­و ­کارزین استان فارس در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار و شمار سه تاک در هر کرت آزمایشی به مدت دو سال انجام شد. میزان انواع سبزینه (کلروفیل)­ها، محتوای نسبی آب برگ، نشت یونی، دمای برگ و تبادلات گازی اندازه­گیری شدند. نتایج نشان داد، تفاوت معنی­داری بین رقم‌های در نشت یونی، میزان E، gs، A/Ci، نورساخت (فتوسنتز) و دمای برگ وجود دارد و برای دیگر صفات اختلاف معنی­داری مشاهده نشد. اثر گرما بر تعرق برگ در رقم‌های مختلف متفاوت بود. گرما موجب افزایش یکسان در غلظت دی‌اکسید کربن درون محفظۀ روزنه در همۀ رقم‌ها شد. همچنین گرما موجب کاهش در هدایت روزنه­ای و نورساخت در همه رقم‌های شد. رقم فلیم­سیدلس در گرمای 45 درجه سلسیوس میزان نورساخت مناسبی داشت که نشان‌دهندۀ تحمل نسبی این رقم به گرمای شدید است. رقم رطبی با نورساخت به نسبت مناسب تحمل گرمایی متوسطی داشت. نورساخت در رقم‌های عسکری و منقا به‌شدت کاهش یافت که نشان می‌دهد، در مقایسه با رقم‌های فلیم سیدلس و رطبی به تنش گرمایی حساس‌تر هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study on physiological responses and adaptation of some grapevine cultivars against sever heat stress condition in south of Fars province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Javad Karami 1
  • Saied Eshghi 2
  • Enayat-ollah Tafazoli 2
1 Instructor, Fars Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources, Shiraz, Iran
2 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

In recent years grape growing has been extended to warm climate regions in Fars province. In other hand, heat stress is considered as major factor which affected yield and quality of grape production in these regions. The aim of this study was to determine heat tolerance ability in four three-year-old grapevine cultivars (̒Rotabi̕, ̒Askari̕, ̒Monagh̕ and ̒Flame Seedless̕) against sever heat stress under vineyard condition. This research was carried out in Ghir-O-Karzin region of Fars province for two years. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with four replicates and three vines in each plot. Leaf chlorophyll content, relative water content (RWC), electrolyte leakage (EL), and leaf gas exchange parameters were measured. The results showed a significantly differences in El, E, gs, A/Ci, photosynthetic rate (A) and leaf temperature. No significantly differences were observed for other parameters. Heat stress increased substomatal CO2 concentration with equal amounts in all cultivars. But heat stress decreased stomatal conductance (gs) and Photosynthetic rate (A) in all cultivars. Flame Seedless had a relatively desirable photosynthetic rate and was a heat-tolerant cultivar. Photosynthetic rate of ̒Rotabi̕ was less than ̒Flame Seedless̕. Therefore, it was a moderately-heat-tolerant cultivar. ̒Askari̕ and ̒Monagha̕ were heat-sensitive cultivars compared to ̒Flame Seedless̕ and ̒Rotabi̕.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • gas exchange
  • heat stress
  • heat tolerance
  • photosynthesis
  • Stomatal conductance
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