بررسی ویژگی‌های مورفوفیزیولوژیک، درصد اسانس و برخی عنصرهای درمنه‌دشتی تحت تأثیر تغییر خاک رویشگاه (بررسی موردی: منطقۀ دریاچۀ حوض سلطان استان قم)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد، مؤسسۀ تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

2 استاد، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکدۀ علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

3 استادیار، مؤسسۀ تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در این پژوهش صفات مورفولوژیک درمنه ‌دشتی برداشت‌شده از سه نقطۀ رویشگاه طبیعی دارای خاک متفاوت، از 35 کیلومتری شمال قم در مرحلۀ گل‌دهی کامل شامل: ارتفاع گیاه، شمار پنجه، قطر بزرگ و کوچک تاج پوشش، طول و وزن ریشه، میزان قندهای محلول، پرولین، سدیم، پتاسیم، منیزیم، کلسیم، کلر، آهن و درصد اسانس اندازه‌گیری و مقایسه شد. نتایج تجزیۀ واریانس نشان داد، بین نقاط برداشت در سرشاخۀ گل‌دار، وزن ساقه، وزن ریشه، وزن کل مادۀ خشک، قندهای محلول، پرولین، سبزینۀ (کلروفیل) کل، سبزینۀa، سدیم، پتاسیم، منیزیم، کلر، سبزینۀ b و کلسیم اختلاف آماری معنی‌دار مشاهده شد. مقایسه میانگین نمونه‌ها نشان داد که حداکثر عملکرد سرشاخه گل‌دار 3/48 گرم بر بوته، وزن سرشاخه کل 5/173 گرم بر بوته، وزن ریشه 2/70 گرم بر بوته و وزن کل ماده خشک 6/243 گرم بر بوته و حداکثر درصد اسانس 75/0درصد بود. حداکثر قندهای محلول 68/0 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر، پرولین 17/1 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر، سبزینۀ کل 81/0 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر، سدیم 8/8 پی‌پی‌ام، پتاسیم 7/15 پی‌پی‌ام، منیزیم 7/4 پی‌پی‌ام، کلسیم 86/22 پی‌پی‌ام و کلر 2/35516 پی‌پی‌ام بودند. نتایج همبستگی صفات نشان داد که قندهای محلول با پرولین و کلر همبستگی مثبت معنی‌دار داشت و با سبزینۀ کل، سبزینۀ a و سبزینۀ b همبستگی منفی معنی‌دار داشت. پرولین با کلر (**82/0=r) همبستگی مثبت معنی‌دار داشت. نتایج نشان داد که درمنه ‌دشتی گیاهی متحمل به شوری کم بوده و با افزایش اسمولیت‌های تنظیم‌کننده، نسبت به شوری تحمل نشان داده و عملکرد اندام‌های هوایی با افزایش شوری به‌شدت کاهش می‌یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of morphophysiological traits, essential oil percentage and some elements of Artemisia sieberi affected by changes in habitat soil (case study: Hoz Soltan lake in Qom)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoumeh Layeghhaghighi 1
  • Moazzam Hassanpour Asil 2
  • Bohloul Abbaszadeh 3
1 Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research Education and extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research Education and extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

In this research, the plant samples of Artemisia were collected at full flowering stage from three natural habitats in North of Qom province, Iran. Morphological characters were plant height, the number of tiller, large and small diameter of canopy, root length, root weight. The samples were analyzed for their soluble sugars, proline, chlorophyll, Na, K, Mg, Ca and Cl content and percentage of essential oil. Analysis of variance indicated that habitats significantly influenced flowering shoot, stem weight, root weight, total dry matter weight, soluble sugars, proline, chlorophyll a, Na, K, Mg and Cl at P≤ 0.01, and chlorophyll b and Ca at P ≤ 0.05. The means of traits indicated that flowering shoot yield with 48.3 g/plant, root weight with 70.2 g/plant, total dry matter yield with 234.6 g/plant and the percentage of essential oil with 0.75% were maximum. The highest soluble sugars, proline, Na, K, Mg, Ca and Cl with 0.68 mg/lit, 1.17 mg/lit, 8.8 ppm, 15.7 ppm, 4.7 ppm, 22.86 ppm and 35516.2 ppm means were observed. The results showed that Artemisia is an endurable plant in a low salty conditions and it can increase regulator osmolytes and reduce yield to suffer salty conditions. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Artemisia sieberi
  • ICP
  • mineral elements
  • proline
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