تأثیر سطوح مختلف سولفات آمونیوم بر رنگیزه‌های نورساختی، میزان و اجزای اسانس مرزۀ تابستانۀ رقم اصلاح‌شدۀ ساترن (Satureja hortensis L. cv Saturn)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

2 دانشجوی سابق دکتری علوم باغبانی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج و عضو هیئت‌علمی گروه گیاهان دارویی و معطر دانشگاه جهرم

3 استادیار، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

4 استادیار، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی فارس، بخش منابع طبیعی

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر سطوح مختلف سولفات آمونیوم بر رنگیزه‌های نورساختی (فتوسنتزی)، میزان و اجزای اسانس گیاه مرزۀ تابستانه (Satureja hortensis L.)، آزمایشی بر پایۀ طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با پنج تیمار و سه تکرار در شرایط آب و هوایی کرج به اجرا درآمد. تیمارها شامل پنج سطح مختلف سولفات آمونیوم شامل: شاهد (0)، 40، 60، 80 و 100 کیلوگرم سولفات آمونیوم بود که به‌صورت سرک به کرت‌ها اضافه شد. در مرحلۀ گلدهی کامل، بوته‌های مربوط به هر تیمار برداشت شدند و صفات مورد بررسی شامل میزان سبزینه یا کلروفیل (b,a و کل)، میزان کاروتنوئید، درصد، عملکرد و اجزای اسانس اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج، نشان‌دهندۀ تفاوت معنی‌دار تیمارها بر برخی از صفات اندازه‌گیری شده بود. از 26 ترکیب شناسایی‌شده در تیمارهای مختلف، تنها دوازده ترکیب تحت تأثیر سطوح کودی قرار گرفتند. همچنین درصد و عملکرد اسانس نیز به‌طور معنی‌داری تحت تأثیر تیمارها تغییر پیدا کردند. با افزایش سطوح مختلف سولفات آمونیوم درصد و عملکرد اسانس افزایش معنی‌داری پیدا کرد به‌طوری‌که بالاترین درصد و عملکرد اسانس (به ترتیب 55/3 درصد و 97/49 میلی‌لیتر) مربوط به تیمار 100 کیلوگرم سولفات آمونیوم و کمترین میزان (به ترتیب 68/2 درصد و 32/16 میلی‌لیتر) مربوط به تیمار شاهد بود. کارواکرول به‌عنوان ترکیب اصلی این گیاه تحت تأثیر تیمار کودی قرار گرفت. بالاترین میزان کارواکرول (06/52 درصد) و کمترین میزان (57/46 درصد) به ترتیب در تیمارهای40 و 60 کیلوگرم سولفات آمونیوم اندازه‌گیری شد. کمترین میزان محتوای سبزینۀ کل (69/18 میلی‌گرم بر گرم نمونۀ تر) مربوط به تیمار 100 کیلوگرم سولفات آمونیوم بود و دیگر تیمارها در یک گروه قرار داشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of different levels of Ammonium Sulfate on photosynthesis pigments, essential oil content, yield and component of improved summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L. cv. Saturn)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mesbah Babalar 1
  • Saeedeh Mohtashami 2
  • Leila Tabrizi 3
  • Vahi Roshan 4
1 Professor, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Former Ph.D. Student, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran and Faculty Member of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Department, Jahrom University, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to study a the effect of different levels of Ammonium Sulfate on photosynthesis pigments, essential oil content and components in summer Savory, an experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five treatments and three replications on Karaj climate conditions. The treatments included five levels of ammonium sulfate consist of: control (without fertilizer), 40, 60, 80 and 100 kg/h of ammonium sulfate that were applied as split application (three weeks after sowing). At full flowering stage, the plant samples of all treatments were harvested and measured for the desired attributes such as Chlorophyll a, b and total, carotenoide, essential oil percentage, yield and components (consist of 26 compounds by GC-MS apparatus). The results showed significant differences among treatments on some traits measured. Among 26 identified components in different treatments, just 12 combinations were affected by ammonium sulfate fertilizer. Also, essential oil percentage and yield were significantly affected by treatments. With increasing ammonium sulfate concentration, essential oil percentage and yield significantly increased, so that the highest essential oil percentage and yield (3.55% and 49.97 ml, respectively) related to 100 kg ammonium sulfate and the lowest content (2.68% and 16.32 ml respectively) belonged to control. Carvacrol, as the main component in this plant was affected by treatments. The maximum content (52.06%) in 40 kg ammonium sulfate and the minimum content (46.57%) in 60 kg ammonium sulfate were detected. The lowest total chlorophyll content (18.69 mg/g FW) belonged to 100 kg ammonium sulfate and other treatments were placed in a same group.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Carvacrol
  • Essential oil
  • fertility
  • gamma terpinene
  • Satureja hortensis
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