تأثیر سطوح مختلف آبیاری بر رشد، عملکرد، کیفیت و کارایی مصرف آب گیاهان پیوندی و غیرپیوندی خربزۀ زرد جلالی در نظام آبیاری قطره‌ای

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق دکتری فیزیولوژی و اصلاح سبزی، دانشکدۀ علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان و استادیار، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، ایران

2 استاد، دانشکدۀ علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، ایران

3 استادیار، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

4 دانشیار پژوهش، مؤسسۀ تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

در این پژوهش از تودۀ بومی خربزۀ زرد جلالی به‌عنوان پیوندک و از کدوهای تجاری رقم‌های شینتوزا (Shintozwa) و فرو (Ferro-RZ) به‌عنوان پایه استفاده شد. گیاهان پیوندشده روی کدو همراه با گیاهان خود پیوندی و غیر پیوندی در سه سطح آبیاری 60، 80 و 100 درصد، که به ترتیب برابر با 32/4984، 82/6124 و 41/7239 مترمکعب در هکتار بر پایۀ تخلیۀ رطوبتی خاک، تحت نظام آبیاری قطره‌ای ارزیابی شدند. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش تنش کم‌آبی سفتی گوشت میوه، محتوای نسبی آب برگ و سبزینۀ (کلروفیل) برگ گیاه کاهش یافت. مقایسۀ میانگین‌ها، نشان داد که عملکرد کل بیشترین (76/40 تن در هکتار) و کمترین (16/31 تن در هکتار) به ترتیب به پایۀ شینتوزا و گیاه خود پیوندی اختصاص داشت. تغییرپذیری نسبی تأثیر پیوند در افزایش عملکرد کل در پایه‌های شینتوزا و فرو در مقایسه با گیاهان غیر پیوندی به ترتیب 07/23 و 19/14 درصد در شرایط تنش کم‌آبی بود. همچنین افزایش عملکرد ناشی از افزایش در وزن میوه بود به‌طوری‌که میانگین وزن میوه در پایۀ شینتوزا (51/3 کیلوگرم) و پایۀ فرو (59/3 کیلوگرم) در مقایسه با گیاهان غیر پیوندی (97/2 کیلوگرم) بیشتر بود. بین سطوح آبیاری شاهد و 80 درصد تفاوت معنی‌داری از نظر عملکرد و میانگین وزن میوه وجود نداشت. همچنین بیشترین (18/38 تن در هکتار) و کمترین (22/26 تن در هکتار) عملکرد بازارپسند به ترتیب به سطوح آبیاری 100 و 60 درصد اختصاص داشت. بیشترین (70/6 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب) و کمترین (05/5 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب) میزان کارایی مصرف آب به ترتیب به پایه‌های شینتوزا و گیاهان خود پیوندی مربوط بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of different levels of irrigation on growth, yield, fruit quality and water use efficiency of grafted and ungrafted melon (Cucumis melo l. Zarde Jalali) under drip irrigation system

نویسندگان [English]

  • Darioush Ramezan 1
  • Moazam Hassanpour Asil 2
  • Reza Salehi 3
  • Hossein Dehghanisanij 4
1 Former Ph.D. Student of Physiology and Breeding Vegetable, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture Sciences, University of Guilan and Assistant Professor of Department of Horticulture and landscaping, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Iran
2 Professor Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
4 Scientific Broad Member, Agricultural Engineering Research Institute (AERI), Agricultural Research Eucation, and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

In this study, a landrace melon Zarde Jalali as the scion and commercial varieties of Cucurbita rootstocks cv., Shintozwa and Ferro-RZ was used as the rootstock. Grafted plants upon commercial varieties of Cucurbita with own-rooted and ungrafted at three irrigation levels of 60, 80 and 100% (respectively 4984.32, 6124.82 and 7239.41 m3ha-1) based on total available water depletion with drip irrigation system were evaluated. The results showed that with increasing water stress fruit flesh firmness, leaf relative water content and leaf chlorophyll content decreased. Comparison of means showed that maximum (40.76 tonha-1) and minimum (31.16 tonha-1) total yield, obtained by Shintozwa rootstock and self grafted, respectively. The relative changes of performance grafting on increase total yield in Shintozwa and Ferro-RZ rootstocks in compared to non-grafted plants was 23.07 and 14.19 in water deficit conditions respectively. Also the increase in yield was due to the increase in fruit weight so that the average weight of the fruit at Shintozwa rootstock (3.51 kg) and Ferro-RZ rootstock (3.59 kg), was higher in grafted plants compared to non-grafted plants (2.97 kg). Between water levels of 80% and control, no significant differences were found in terms of yield and average fruit weight. Also maximum of marketable yield (38.18 tonha-1) and the lowest yield (26.22 tonha-1) were related to irrigation levels of 100 and 60%, respectively. The maximum (6/7kg m3) and minimum water use efficiency (5/05 kg m3), were related to Shintozwa rootstock and self grafted plants, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • irrigation levels
  • Grafting
  • total soluble solids
  • Water use efficiency
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