ارزیابی تأثیر پایه، پیوندک و روش پیوند بر افزایش رویشی انار

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی‌عصر(عج) رفسنجان، ایران

2 دانشیار، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی‌عصر(عج) رفسنجان، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور ارزیابی تأثیر نوع پایه، پیوندک و برخی روش­های چوپیوند و کوپیوند در افزایش نهال انار و دست­یابی به­ بهترین روش پیوند انار، آزمایشی به­صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کامل تصادفی در اسفندماه 1391 در گلخانة دانشگاه ولی‌عصر(عج) رفسنجان اجرا شد. عامل‌ها شامل پایه، پیوندک، روش پیوند و زمان بود. رقم‌های پوست­قرمز علی­آقایی، گرچ داداشی و گرچ شهوار به­عنوان پایه، رقم‌های رباب نی­ریز و خفر جهرم به­عنوان پیوندک و از پیوندهای اسکنه و تراشه­ای به­عنوان روش پیوند استفاده شد. صفات رویشی مورداندازه‌گیری 60، 120 و 180 روز پس از پیوند بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد روش پیوند بر درصد گیرای پیوند و گیاهان پیوندی باقی­مانده در انار تأثیرگذار بود به­طوری­که روش پیوند اسکنه گیرایی بالاتری نسبت به روش پیوند تراشه­ای داشت ولی پایه و پیوندک­های مورداستفاده بر درصد گیرایی و گیاهان پیوندی باقی­مانده تأثیری نداشت. فراسنجه (پارامتر)های رویشی در همة ترکیب­های پیوندی در زمان 180 روز پس از پیوند نسبت به دو زمان دیگر بیشترین میزان را داشتند. میزان ترکیبات فنلی پایه و پیوندک با درصد گیرایی و گیاهان پیوندی باقی­مانده همبستگی منفی داشت. درنهایت پیوند اسکنه در روش قلمة پیوند برای افزایش انار و تغییر رقم توصیه می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of rootstock, scion and grafting method on vegetative propagation of pomegranate

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehrdad Nowrozi 1
  • Hamid Reza Karimi 2
  • Seyed Hossein Mirdehghan 2
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effect of rootstock, scion and some methods of grafting and budding to achieve the best methods of grafting in pomegranate, split factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design in March 2013 in greenhouse at the Agricultural College of Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan. Factors included rootstock, scion, and methods of grafting and time of grafting. Varieties of grafted plants of Poust Ghermez-e-Ali Aghaei, Garch-e-Dadashi and Garch-e-Shavar were used as rootstock; varieties of Rabab-e-Neyris and Khafr-e-Jahrom were used as scion. Methods of Cleft grafting, Chip budding were used. The vegetative parameters were measured at three times: 60, 120 and 180 days after grafting. Results showed that the methods of grafting had significant effect on grafting success and establishement of grafted seedling. The cleft grafting had more grafting success compared to Chip budding, but rootstock and scion genotypes had no significant effect on grafting success and survival of grafted plants. The highest rate of vegetative parameters in all grafting was obtained in 180 days after grafting. There were negative correlation between phenolic compounds of rootstock and scion with the percent of survived grafted seedling. Finally, the Cleft grafting technique showed to be more successful method for propagation and scion cultivar change of pomegranate.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chip budding
  • cleft grafting
  • Correlation
  • grafting success
  • phenolic compounds
Chapman, H. D. & Pratt, D. F. (1961). Methods of analysis for soil, plant and water. University of California Agricultural Science. pp: 60-62.
Carlson, R. F. & Ho, S. D. (1975). Influence of inter stem lengths of M.8 clone (Malus aylvestris Mill.) on growth, precocity, yield and spacing of two apple cultivars. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 100, 450-452.
Ebrahimzade, H. (2000). Plant physiology (Photosynthese). Tehran university press. Second editions. Pp 690. (in Farsi)
Frolich, E. F. & Ryan, C. F. (1959). An experiment on the effect of retaining leaves on the rootstock in grafting macadamias. Reprint from CMS, 1, 1-3.
Gerigorian, V. (2002). Physiology of grafting and grafting methods. Publication Society of Horticultural Science. 351 pages. (in Farsi)
Godeanu, A., Baciu, G. A. & Cosmulescu, S. (2004). Achievements & perspectives in creating rootstocks & in the technology for obtaining grafted walnut trees in Romania. Acta Horticulturae, 658, 479-487.
Hartmann, H. T., Kester, D. E. & Davies, F. T. (1990). Plant Propagation, Principles & Practices. (4th ed.), Prentice-Hall Inc. Englewood, Cliffs, NJ., USA, 647p.
Isfendiyaroglu, M. & Zeker, E. (2002). The relation between phenolic compound and seed dormancy in Pistacia spp. Optins Mediterraneans, 56, 232-2770.
Izadi, Z., Zarei, H. & Alizadeh, M. (2013). Role of grafting technique on the success of stenting sropagation of two Rose (Rosa sp.) varieties. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 4, 41-44.
Jimenez, S., Pinochet, J., Gogorcena, Y., Betran, J. A. & Moreno, M. A. (2007). Influence of different vigour cherry rootstocks on leaves & shoots mineral composition. Scientia Horticulturae, 112, 73-79.
Jones, O. P. (1986). Endogenous growth regulators & rootstock/scion interactions in apple & cherry trees. Acta Horticulturae, 179, 177-184
Karadeniz, T. & Kazankaya, A. (1997). Relationship between phenolic compounds & graft success in Walnut (Juglans regia L.). Acta Horticulturae, 442, 193-197.
Karadeniz T. (2005). Relationships between graft success & climatic values in walnut (Juglans regia L.). Journal of Central European Agriculture, 6(4), 631-634.
Karadeniz, T., Balata, F., Mehmet, S. & Ekmel, F.T. (1997). Effects of the flavones contents extracted from walnut (Juglans regia L.) on coleoptile growth & comparison of relations between the total flavones & the graft success with this effects. Acta Horticulturae, 442, 187-192.
Karadeniz, T., Kazankaya, A., Balta, F. & Sen, S. M. (1997). Relation between phenolic compounds & graft success in walnut (Juglans regia L.). Acta Horticultureae, 442, 193-196.
Karimi, H.R. & Farahm, H. (2011). Study of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) propagation using bench grafting. Journal of Fruit & Ornamental Plant Research, 19, 67-72.
Karimi, H.R. (2011). Stenting (cutting & grafting): A new technique for propagation pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Journal of Fruit & Ornamental Plant Research, 19, 73-79.
Karimi, H.R. & Eini Tari, F. (2015). NaHCO3 effect on photosynthetic characteristics, iron andsodium transfer in pomegranate. Journal of Plant Nutrition. Inpress.
Khoshkhoi, M. (2007). Plant propagations. Shiraz university press. Vul.1. (in Farsi)
Lantos, A. (1990). Bench grafting of walnut. Acta Horticulturae, 284, 53-57.
Mahmoodi Tabar, S., Trhranifar, A., Davarynejad, G. H., Nemati, S. H. & Zabihi, H. R. (2009). Aril paleness, new physiological disorder in pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.): physical & chemical changes during exposure of fruit disorder. Horticulture Environment & Biotechnology, 50, 300-307.
Mehmet Sen, S., Karadeniz, T., Balata, F. & Tekintas, E. F. (1997). Changing of flavan contents of some organs of walnut seedlings (Juglans regia L.), exposed to the controlled grafting conditions. Acta Horticulturae, 442, 181-186.
Mohseni, A. (2011). Pomegranate production guide. Nashr-e- Akhar Publishers. (in Farsi)
Morinaga, K. & Ikeda, F. (1990). The effects of several rootstocks on photosynthetic, distribution of photosynthesis production, & growth young Satsuma of M&arin trees. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 59(1), 29-34.
Ozkan, Y. & Gunus, A. (2001). Effects of different applications on grafting under controlled conditions of Walnut (Juglans regia L.). Acta Horticulturae, 544, 515-520.
Ozkan, Y., Edizer, Y. & Akca, Y. (2001). A study on propagation with patch budding of some walnut cultivars (Juglans regia L.). Acta Horticulturae, 544, 521-525.
Paunovic, S. M., Miletic, R., Mitronic, M. & Jankovic, D. (2011). Effect of callusing conditions on grafting success in Walnut (Juglans regia L.). Journal of Fruit & Ornamental Plant Research, 19(2), 5-14.
Pinghai, D. & Rongting, X. (1993). Effect of phenols on survival of walnut grafting. Acta Horticulturae, 311, 134-140.
Pratararia, A. G., Kuniyuki, A. H. & Ryogo, K. (1998). Growth inhibitors in xylem exudates of Persian walnut & their possible role in graft failure. Journal of American Society Horticulture Science, 108, 1043-1045.
Ramos, D. E. (1998). Walnut production manual. University of California. 316P.
Rezaee, R. & Vahdati, K. (2008). Introducing a simple & efficient procedure for top working Persian walnut trees. Journal of the American Pomological Scociety, 62, 21-26.
Rezaee, R., Vahdati, K., Grigoorian, V. & Lizade, M. (2008). Walnut grafting success & bleeding rate as affected by different grafting methods & seedling vigour. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology, 83, 94-99.
Rivero, M., Ruize, M. & Romero, L. (2003). Role of grafting in horticulture plants under stress conditions. Journal of Agricultural Environmental, 1, 70-74.
Rongting, X. & Pinghai, D. (1990). Theory & practice of walnut grafting. Acta Horticulturae, 284, 69-89.
Shakeri, M. (2008). The technical construction of the pomegranate orchards. Publication No. 119, Agricultural Extension Coordination of Yazd. (in Farsi)
Sharma, S. & Dhuria, H. (1981). Standardization of suitable media & the interval for walnut propagation under controlled conditions. Progressive Horticulture, 13, 43-46.
Soleimani, A. (2008). Effects of kind of graft and varieties on sussed graft. M.Sc. thesis. Zanjan University. (in Farsi)
Soleimani, A., Rabiei V. & Hassani, D. (2010). Effect of different techniques on walnut (Juglans regia L.) grafting. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, 8(29), 544-546.
Stanisavljevic, M. & Mitrovic, M. (1997). Effect of variety on successful grafting & development of nursery trees of walnut (Juglans regia L.). Acta Hotrticalture, 442, 281-284.
Vahdati, K. (2004). Construction nursery and grafting. Khanyran publications. 113 pages. (in Farsi)
Vazifeshenas, M., Khayyat, M. & Jamalian, S. (2009). Effect of different scion rootstocks combinations on vigour, tree size, & yield & fruit quality on three Iranian cultivars of pomegranate. Acta Horticulture, 463, 143-152.
Webster, A. D. (2004). Vigour mechanisms in dwarfing boot stocks for temperate fruit trees. Acta Horticulturae, 658, 29-41.
Weibel, A., Johnson, R. S. & Dejong, T. M. (2003). Comparative vegetative growth responses of two peach cultivars grown on size controlling versus standard rootstocks. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 128(4), 463-471.
Whiting, M. D., Lang, G. & Ophardt, D. (2005). Rootstock & training systemaffect sweet cherry growth, yield & fruit quality. Horticulture Science, 40(3), 582-586.
Zakinthinos, G. & Rouskas, D. (1997). Specific treatments on walnut grafting improvement. Acta Horticulturae, 442, 285-290.